Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) deposition have increased rapidly during the past decades, which likely changes soil N and P availability. These soil resource variations will further affect N, P concentration and N:P ratio in different ecosystem pools (i.e. soil, leaf, litter, root and microbe). Various pools may show different stoichiometric responses to nutrient enrichment, with a further influence on ecosystem nutrient cycling. However, few studies have been conducted to fully examine the stoichiometric responses of different pools and their nutrient relationships in a given ecosystem. Here we established a two‐year experiment of N (10 g m‐2 yr‐1), P (10 g m‐2 yr‐1) and combined N+P addition in a temperate forest of Changbai Mountain. We found significantly different N:P stoichiometric responses among various ecosystem components under P addition, with the leaves showing a higher response than litter and root while microbe behaving the lowest response. The responses of N:P ratio to N+P addition were similar with those under P addition in all pools. In most cases, N addition did not significantly affect N:P ratio. These results indicate that N:P ratio response was mainly determined by changes in P rather than N concentration in this temperate forest ecosystem. Moreover, we found tighter N:P stoichiometric correlations than elements among diverse ecosystem components under nutrient addition. Overall, our research reveals different responses and tight links of element stoichiometric variations among various ecosystem components in face of nutrient enrichment. It calls our attention to considering stoichiometric changes in the whole‐ecosystem beyond individual plant organ or microbial components.