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  • 1
    ISSN: 1662-9752
    Source: Scientific.Net: Materials Science & Technology / Trans Tech Publications Archiv 1984-2008
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3 ((1-x)PMN-xPT, PMN-PT) with composition near the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) were prepared by the columbite precursor method and the rutile precursor method respectively. Attention has been focused on the influence of process on microstructure of PMN-PT ceramics. The results show that the average grain size of ceramics is insensitive to composition for both above processes. The refinement and homogeneity on grain size in the rutile precursor method is better than that in the columbite precursor method
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: prostaglandin ; phospholipase A2 ; age ; tumor necrosis factor-α ; transforming growth factor-β1 ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The eicosanoids, including prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and other bioactive arachidonic acid metabolites, are important local mediators of bone remodeling. Presumably, the limited or excessive synthesis of the eicosanoids could compromise bone homeostasis. We have noted that the stimulated release of arachidonic acid by adult male donor derived human osteoblast-like (hOB) cells exceeded the stimulated release measured for female-derived hOB cells by 1.5-fold. Assays of PGE2 biosynthesis by cytokine-stimulated hOB cells also demonstrated a sex-linked difference, such that male hOB cell PGE2 production exceeded female cell production by 1.6-2.2-fold. The calcium-dependent cytoplasmic phospholipase A2 activity in subcellular fractions prepared from hOB cell homogenates was higher in both the cytosolic (1.6-fold) and particulate (1.5-fold) fractions from the male cells than in those prepared from female hOB cells, suggesting a molecular basis for the observed sexually dimorphic characteristics related to arachidonic acid metabolism by hOB cells. The relatively limited capacity of the female cells may limit needed intracellular and intercellular signaling during bone remodeling, thereby contributing to the development of bone pathology. J. Cell. Biochem. 71:74-81, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: transforming growth factor-β ; tumor necrosis factor-α ; phospholipase A2 ; arachidonic acid ; AACOCF3 ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The steroid derivative 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) is a regulator of bone biology, and there is evidence that 1,25(OH)2D3 modulates arachidonic acid metabolism in osteoblastic cell model systems and in bone organ cultures. In the present studies, 1,25(OH)2D3 decreased prostaglandin (PG) biosynthesis by normal adult human osteoblast-like (hOB) cell cultures by about 30%. The decrease was observed under basal incubation conditions, or in specimens stimulated by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β) or by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF). The inhibition of the TGF-β-stimulated PG production appeared to reflect a diminished efficiency of arachidonic acid conversion into PGs by the cells, while the efficiency of substrate utilization for PG biosynthesis was unaffected by 1,25(OH)2D3 pretreatment in the unstimulated samples, or in samples stimulated with TNF or with TNF plus TGF-β. Free arachidonic acid levels were decreased following 1,25(OH)2D3 pretreatment in the TNF stimulated samples. hOB cell phospholipase A2 activity was measured in subcellular fractions, and this activity was decreased by 20-25% in the 1,25(OH)2D3 pretreated samples. The addition of the selective inhibitor AACOCF3 to the phospholipase A2 assays provided evidence that it was the cytoplasmic isoform of the enzyme that was affected by the 1,25(OH)2D3 pretreatment of the hOB cells. Thus, 1,25(OH)2D3 regulation of hOB cell biology includes significant effects on arachidonic acid metabolism. In turn, this could influence the effects of other hormones and cytokines whose actions include the stimulated production of bioactive arachidonic acid metabolites. J. Cell. Biochem. 68:237-246, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. ; Stafa-Zurich, Switzerland
    Key engineering materials Vol. 336-338 (Apr. 2007), p. 10-13 
    ISSN: 1013-9826
    Source: Scientific.Net: Materials Science & Technology / Trans Tech Publications Archiv 1984-2008
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) solid solutions with composition near the morphotropicphase boundary (MPB) (33mol% PT) were successfully synthesized by the molten salt synthesis (MSS)method at 800°C for 30min using Li2SO4-Na2SO4 and NaCl-KCl molten salts as a medium of reaction,respectively. The influences of processing parameters, such as temperature, time, and type of salts, on theformation and the micrographs characteristics of the PMN-PT powders were discussion. It was found thatthe PMN-PT powder obtained by the MSS method has a relatively uniform size distribution and a betterdispersivity of particle, and an average size of PMN-PT particles with smooth surface was around 0.3∼0.5μm. With other conditions being kept same, chloride molten salt is more propitious to the formation ofPMN- PT solid solutions, and improving the compositional homogeneity of PMN-PT powders
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-06-23
    Description: ABSTRACT Benzene-induced erythropoietic depression has been proposed to be due to the production of toxic metabolites. Presently, the cytotoxicities of benzene metabolites, including phenol, catechol, hydroquinone, and 1,2,4-benzenetriol, to erythroid progenitor-like K562 cells were investigated. After exposure to these metabolites, K562 cells showed significant inhibition of viability and apoptotic characteristics. Each metabolite caused a significant increase in activities of caspase-3, -8, and -9, and pretreatment with caspase-3, -8, and -9 inhibitors significantly inhibited benzene metabolites-induced phosphatidylserine exposure. These metabolites also elevated expression of Fas and FasL on the cell surface. After exposure to benzene metabolites, K562 cells showed an increase in reactive oxygen species level, and pretreatment with N -acetyl- l -cysteine significantly protected against the cytotoxicity of each metabolite. Interestingly, the control K562 cells and the phenol-exposed cells aggregated together, but the cells exposed to other metabolites were scattered. Further analysis showed that hydroquione, catechol, and 1,2,4-benzenetriol induced a decrease in the cell surface sialic acid levels and an increase in the cell surface sialidase activity, but phenol did not cause any changes in sialic acid levels and sialidase activity. Consistently, an increase in expression level of sialidase Neu3 mRNA and a decrease in mRNA level of sialyltransferase ST3GAL3 gene were detected in hydroquione-, catechol-, or 1,2,4-benzenetriol-treated cells, but no change in mRNA levels of two genes were found in phenol-treated cells. In conclusion, these benzene metabolites could induce apoptosis of K562 cells mainly through caspase-8-dependent pathway and ROS production, and sialic acid metabolism might play a role in the apoptotic process. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2013.
    Print ISSN: 1520-4081
    Electronic ISSN: 1522-7278
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Published by Wiley
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2015-06-20
    Description: The CRISPR/Cas9 system is becoming an important genome editing tool for crop breeding. Although it has been demonstrated that target mutations can be transmitted to the next generation, their inheritance pattern has not yet been fully elucidated. Here, we describe the CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing of four different rice genes with the help of online target-design tools. High-frequency mutagenesis and a large percentage of putative biallelic mutations were observed in T0 generations. Nonetheless, our results also indicate that the progeny genotypes of biallelic T0 lines are frequently difficult to predict and that the transmission of mutations largely does not conform to classical genetic laws, which suggests that the mutations in T0 transgenic rice are mainly somatic mutations. Next, we followed the inheritance pattern of T1 plants. Regardless of the presence of the CRISPR/Cas9 transgene, the mutations in T1 lines were stably transmitted to later generations, indicating a standard germline transmission pattern. Off-target effects were also evaluated, and our results indicate that with careful target selection, off-target mutations are rare in CRISPR/Cas9-mediated rice gene editing. Taken together, our results indicate the promising production of inheritable and “transgene clean” targeted genome-modified rice in the T1 generation using the CRISPR/Cas9 system. Scientific Reports 5 doi: 10.1038/srep11491
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-2322
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Springer Nature
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