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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1017
    Keywords: Key words Bio-Beads ; Detergents ; Liposomes ; Proteoliposomes ; Reconstitution ; 2 D crystallization ; Membrane proteins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Detergent removal from lipid-protein-detergent micellar solutions is the most successful strategy for reconstitution of integral membrane proteins into proteoliposomes or into two-dimensional crystals. This review establishes the potential of polystyrene beads as a simple alternative to other conventional detergent removing strategies such as dialysis, gel chromatography and dilution. Kinetics and equilibrium aspects of removal of different detergents by hydrophobic adsorption onto polystyrene beads have been systematically investigated. A mechanism of adsorption onto polystyrene beads is proposed and provide useful information about the use of these beads in reconstitution experiments. The usefulness of this detergent removal strategy to produce quasi-ideal proteoliposomes is evaluated by considering the morphology and the size of the reconstituted vesicles, the homogeneity in size and protein distribution, the final protein orientation and the permeability of resulting proteoliposomes. Finally, the advantages of detergent removal by polystyrene beads as an alternative to conventional dialysis in two-dimensional crystallization trials are evaluated through review of recent structural reconstitution studies.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-1211
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
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    Ramat-Gan: Bar-Ilan University, Department of Economics
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: We thank three anonymous referees for thoughtful comments and suggestions which we found very constructive and helpful. We are particularly grateful to the editor, Al Klevorick, for his advice and painstaking guidance through the multiple revision process. We thank Robert Barsky, Susanto Basu, Benny Bental, Mark Bergen, Steve Cecchetti, Robert Chirinko, Alex Cukierman, Leif Danziger, Stanley Fischer, Ben Friedman, Zvi Hercowitz, Arye Hillman, Mark Hooker, Simon Gächter, Robert Gordon, Anil Kashyap, Robert King, Pete Klenow, Ed Knotek, Saul Lach, Jon Moen, Walter Oi, Will Roberds, Christina Romer, David Romer, Julio Rotemberg, Paul Rubin, Rob Saur, Matthew Shapiro, Avichai Snir, Robert Solow, Peter Temin, Ken West, Jon Willis, Janet Yellen, and Mor Zahavi for providing useful comments and suggestions on earlier versions of the paper. We thank also the seminar participants at Bar-Ilan University, Ben-Gurion University, European Central Bank, Emory University, University of Haifa, Hebrew University, ISET, University of Michigan, NBER, and Tel-Aviv University, as well as the participants of the 2008 Annual Conference of the European Association of Law and Economics at the University of Haifa for suggestions and advice. We also thank the Coca-Cola Company Archive employees and especially Phil Mooney, the Coca-Cola Company Historian and the Coca-Cola Company Archive Director, for helping us locate many of the materials used for this project and for patiently answering our questions, and Virginia Cain and Kathy Shoemaker, Emory University Archivists of the Special Collections, for helping us with the papers and correspondence material contained in the Robert W. Woodruff Collection at the Emory University Special Collection Library. Daniel Levy acknowledges financial support from the University Research Committee at Emory University and from Adar Foundation at the Department of Economics at Bar-Ilan University, and research assistance of Eleana Aguilar, Xia Liu, and the late Yihong Xia. Some parts of the manuscript were written at the Monetary Policy Research Division of the European Central Bank in Frankfurt, where Daniel Levy was a visiting scholar. He gratefully acknowledges the Bank's hospitality and research support. All errors are ours.
    Keywords: E12 ; E31 ; K00 ; K12 ; K22 ; K23 ; L14 ; L16 ; L66 ; M21 ; M31 ; N80 ; A14 ; ddc:330 ; Implicit Contract ; Explicit Contract ; Invisible Handshake ; Customer Market ; Long-Term Relationship ; Price Rigidity ; Sticky Prices ; Price Adjustment ; Quality Rigidity ; Quality Adjustment ; Nickel Coke ; Coca-Cola ; Secret Formula ; Real Thing
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 5
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    Ramat-Gan: Bar-Ilan University, Department of Economics
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: We offer the first direct evidence of an implicit contract in a goods market. The evidence we offer comes from the market for Coca-Cola. We demonstrate that the Coca-Cola Company left a substantial amount of written evidence of its implicit contract with its consumers-a very explicit form of an implicit contract. The contract represented the promise of a five cent (nominal) price and adherence to the 'Secret Formula'. In general, the implicit nature of such contracts makes observation difficult. To overcome this difficulty, we adopt a narrative approach. Based on the analysis of a large number of historical documents obtained from the Coca-Cola Archives and other sources, we offer evidence of the Coca-Cola Company both acknowledging and acting on this implicit contract. We also make another unique contribution by exploring quality as a margin of adjustment available to Coca-Cola. The implicit contract included a promise not only of a constant nominal price but also a constant quality (i.e., 6.5 oz. of the Secret Formula). During a period of over 70 years, we find evidence of only a single case of true quality change. By studying the margin of adjustment the Coca-Cola Company chose in response to changes in market conditions, we demonstrate that the perceived costs of breaking the implicit contract were large. We argue that one piece of direct evidence on the magnitude of these costs is the aftermath 'New Coke's' introduction in 1985.
    Keywords: E12 ; E31 ; L14 ; L16 ; L66 ; M30 ; N80 ; A14 ; ddc:330 ; Implicit Contract ; Explicit Contract ; Invisible Handshake ; Customer Market ; Long- Term Relationship ; Price Rigidity ; Nickel Coke ; Coca-Cola ; Vertragstheorie ; Getränkeindustrie ; Beziehungsmarketing ; Produktqualität
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
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    Ramat-Gan: Bar-Ilan University, Department of Economics
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: We use U.S. county-level data to estimate convergence rates for 22 individual states. We find significant heterogeneity. E.g., the California estimate is 19.9 percent and the New York estimate is 3.3 percent. Convergence rates are essentially uncorrelated with income levels.
    Keywords: O40 ; O11 ; O18 ; O51 ; R11 ; H50 ; H70 ; ddc:330 ; Economic Growth ; Conditional Convergence ; Heterogeneity ; U.S. County Level Data ; Wirtschaftswachstum ; Regionale Disparität ; Regionale Einkommensverteilung ; USA
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
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    Ramat-Gan: Bar-Ilan University, Department of Economics
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: We use US county level data (3,058 observations) from 1970 to 1998 to explore the relationship between economic growth and the extent of government employment at three levels: federal, state and local. We find that increases in federal, state and local government employments are all negatively associated with economic growth. We find no evidence that government is more efficient at more decentralized levels. While we cannot separate out the productive and redistributive services of government, we document that the county-level income distribution became slightly wider from 1970 to 1998. For those who justify government activities in terms of equity concerns - perhaps even trading off economic growth for equity - the burden falls on them to show that the income distribution would have widened more in the absence of government activities. We conclude that a release of government-employed labor inputs to the private sector would be growth-enhancing.
    Keywords: O40 ; O11 ; O18 ; O51 ; R11 ; H50 ; H70 ; ddc:330 ; Economic Growth ; Federal Government ; State Government ; Local Government ; County-Level Data ; Wirtschaftswachstum ; Regierung ; Föderalismus ; Landesregierung ; Kommunalverwaltung ; Öffentlicher Dienst ; USA
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 8
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    Ramat-Gan: Bar-Ilan University, Department of Economics
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: We study the link between price points and price rigidity, using two datasets: weekly scanner data, and Internet data. We find that: 9 is the most frequent ending for the penny, dime, dollar and ten-dollar digits; the most common price changes are those that keep the price endings at 9; 9-ending prices are less likely to change than non-9-ending prices; and the average size of price change is larger for 9-ending than non-9-ending prices. We conclude that 9-ending contributes to price rigidity from penny to dollar digits, and across a wide range of product categories, retail formats and retailers.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Preisrigidität ; Anpassungskosten ; Preismanagement ; Chicago (Ill.)
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    Ramat-Gan: Bar-Ilan University, Department of Economics
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: Recent studies in psychology and neuroscience find that fictional works exert strong influence on readers and shape their opinions and worldviews. We study the Potterian economy, which we compare to economic models, to assess how Harry Potter books affect economic literacy. We find that some principles of Potterian economics are consistent with economists' models. Many others, however, are distorted and contain numerous inaccuracies, which contradict professional economists' views and insights, and contribute to the general public's biases, ignorance, and lack of understanding of economics.
    Keywords: A13 ; A14 ; D72 ; D73 ; H00 ; H11 ; I20 ; P16 ; P48 ; P51 ; Z11 ; Z13 ; ddc:330 ; Economic and Financial Literacy ; Political Economy ; Public Choice ; Rent Seeking ; Folk Economics ; Harry Potter ; Social Organization of Economic Activity ; Literature ; Fiction ; Potterian Economy ; Potterian Economics ; Popular Opinion
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 10
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    Ramat-Gan: Bar-Ilan University, Department of Economics
    Publication Date: 2018-07-03
    Description: We take advantage of a natural experiment to document an emergence of a new price ending that has the same effects as 9-endings. In January 2014, the Israeli parliament has passed a law prohibiting the use of non 0-ending prices. We find that one year after 9-ending prices have disappeared, 90-ending prices acquired the same status as 9-ending prices had before the law was passed. 90-ending prices became the new psychological price points. The retailers and the shoppers both reacted to the regulatory intervention optimally, which has eliminated the regulation's intended effect.
    Keywords: E31 ; L16 ; K20 ; ddc:330 ; 9-ending prices ; psychological price points ; sticky prices ; rigid prices ; price recall ; price control ; price regulation ; integer constraint
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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