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  • 1
    ISSN: 0168-1923
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Geography , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-5052
    Keywords: Canopy ; Evaporation ; Leaf area index ; Scaling ; Surface conductance ; Stomata
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract We examine conductances for evaporation from both vegetation and soil in response to environmental variables. Data from a vertically-structured pristine forest of Nothofagus are presented as an example of the effects of biodiversity on the scaling of conductances between tiers of plant organisation. Available data sets of maximum leaf stomatal conductances (g lmax ) and bulk vegetation surface conductances (G smax ) are compared. Overall, the ratio G smax /g lmax is consistently close to 3 for seven major vegetation types of diverse structure. An analytical model accounts for this close relationship, and in particular how G smax is conservative against changes in leaf area index because of the compensating decrease in plant canopy transpiration and increase in soil evaporation as leaf area index diminishes. The model is also successfully tested by comparison with canopy conductances of emergent trees measured in the Nothofagus forest. The constraint of vegetation surface conductance and evaporation via environmental regulation by irradiance, air saturation deficit and root zone water supply are discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: There is growing evidence that plant stomata have evolved physiological controls to satisfy the demand for CO2 by photosynthesis while regulating water losses by leaves in a manner that does not cause cavitation in the soil–root–xylem hydraulic system. Whether the hydraulic and biochemical properties of plants evolve independently or whether they are linked at a time scale relevant to plant stand development remains uncertain. To address this question, a steady-state analytical model was developed in which supply of CO2 via the stomata and biochemical demand for CO2 are constrained by the balance between loss of water vapour from the leaf to the atmosphere and supply of water from the soil to the leaf. The model predicts the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) for which the maximum demand for CO2 is in equilibrium with the maximum hydraulically permissible supply of water through the soil–root–xylem system. The model was then tested at two forest stands in which simultaneous hydraulic, ecophysiological, and long-term carbon isotope discrimination measurements were available. The model formulation reproduces analytically recent findings on the sensitivity of bulk stomatal conductance (gs) to vapour pressure deficit (D); namely, gs = gref(1 − m × lnD), where m is a sensitivity parameter and gref is a reference conductance defined at D = 1 kPa. An immediate outcome of the model is an explicit relationship between maximum carboxylation capacity (Vcmax) and soil–plant hydraulic properties. It is shown that this relationship is consistent with measurements reported for conifer and rain forest angiosperm species. The analytical model predicts a decline in Vcmax as the hydraulic capacity of the soil–root–xylem decreases with stand development or age.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Growth of snow gum seedlings (Eucalyptus pauciflora Sieb. ex Spreng.) was studied in response to differences in microclimate caused by differential heat exchange between seedlings, grass and bare, moist soil during winter and spring. Seedlings were planted in a pasture either directly into grassy groundcover or in circular patches of bare soil of 30, 60 or 120 cm in diameter. There were no differences in maximum air temperatures at seedling leaf height between treatments. However, minimum air temperature increased by 2 °C with increase in patch diameter from 0 to 120 cm such that seedlings surrounded by grass experienced lower minimum temperatures with more frequent and more severe frosts than seedlings growing in large patches of bare soil. These small-scale differences in minimum temperature affected both photosynthetic and growth processes. Over winter, seedlings were photoinhibited, with depression in midday Fv/Fm linearly related to minimum temperatures. In spring, repeated frosts and lower minimum temperatures led to a delay in the recovery of Fv/Fm, a delay in bud-break, damage to elongating stems and developing leaves, lower rates of stem elongation, and ultimately a shorter growing season for seedlings in grass compared to those in bare soil patches. Thus, microclimate above grass adversely affects spring growth of juvenile Eucalyptus pauciflora and may account for much of the competitive inhibition of tree seedling growth by grass during spring.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Plant, cell & environment 18 (1995), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Gas-exchange measurements on Eucalyptus grandis leaves and data extracted from the literature were used to test a semi-empirical model of stomatal conductance for CO2gSc=go+a1A/(cs-I) (1+Ds/Do)]where A is the assimilation rate; Ds and cs are the humidity deficit and the CO2 concentration at the leaf surface, respectively; g0 is the conductance as A → 0 when leaf irradiance → 0; and D0 and a1 are empirical coefficients. This model is a modified version of gsc=a1A hs/cs first proposed by Ball, Woodrow & Berry (1987, in Progress in Photosynthesis Research, Martinus Mijhoff, Publ., pp. 221–224), in which hs is relative humidity. Inclusion of the CO2 compensation point, τ, improved the behaviour of the model at low values of cs, while a hyperbolic function of Ds for humidity response correctly accounted for the observed hyperbolic and linear variation of gsc and ci/cs as a function of Ds, where Ci is the intercellular CO2 concentration. In contrast, use of relative humidity as the humidity variable led to predictions of a linear decrease in gsc and a hyperbolic variation in ci/cs as a function of Ds, contrary to data from E. grandis leaves. The revised model also successfully described the response of stomata to variations in A, Ds and cs for published responses of the leaves of several other species. Coupling of the revised stomatal model with a biochemical model for photosynthesis of C3 plants synthesizes many of the observed responses of leaves to light, humidity deficit, leaf temperature and CO2 concentration. Best results are obtained for well-watered plants.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Plant, cell & environment 25 (2002), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The temperature dependence of the photosynthetic parameters Vcmax, the maximum catalytic rate of the enzyme Rubisco, and Jmax, the maximum electron transport rate, were examined using published datasets. An Arrehenius equation, modified to account for decreases in each parameter at high temperatures, satisfactorily described the temperature response for both parameters. There was remarkable conformity in Vcmax and Jmax between all plants at Tleaf 〈 25 °C, when each parameter was normalized by their respective values at 25 °C (Vcmax0 and Jmax0), but showed a high degree of variability between and within species at Tleaf 〉 30 °C. For both normalized Vcmax and Jmax, the maximum fractional error introduced by assuming a common temperature response function is 〈 ± 0·1 for most plants and 〈 ± 0·22 for all plants when Tleaf 〈 25 °C. Fractional errors are typically 〈 ± 0·45 in the temperature range 25–30 °C, but very large errors occur when a common function is used to estimate the photosynthetic parameters at temperatures 〉 30 °C. The ratio Jmax/Vcmax varies with temperature, but analysis of the ratio at Tleaf = 25 °C using the fitted mean temperature response functions results in Jmax0/Vcmax0 = 2·00 ± 0·60 (SD, n = 43).
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Plant, cell & environment 26 (2003), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: A model that couples stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, leaf energy balance and transport of water through the soil–plant–atmosphere continuum is presented. Stomatal conductance in the model depends on light, temperature and intercellular CO2 concentration via photosynthesis and on leaf water potential, which in turn is a function of soil water potential, the rate of water flow through the soil and plant, and on xylem hydraulic resistance. Water transport from soil to roots is simulated through solution of Richards’ equation. The model captures the observed hysteresis in diurnal variations in stomatal conductance, assimilation rate and transpiration for plant canopies. Hysteresis arises because atmospheric demand for water from the leaves typically peaks in mid-afternoon and because of uneven distribution of soil matric potentials with distance from the roots. Potentials at the root surfaces are lower than in the bulk soil, and once soil water supply starts to limit transpiration, root potentials are substantially less negative in the morning than in the afternoon. This leads to higher stomatal conductances, CO2 assimilation and transpiration in the morning compared to later in the day. Stomatal conductance is sensitive to soil and plant hydraulic properties and to root length density only after approximately 10 d of soil drying, when supply of water by the soil to the roots becomes limiting. High atmospheric demand causes transpiration rates, LE, to decline at a slightly higher soil water content, θs, than at low atmospheric demand, but all curves of LE versus θs fall on the same line when soil water supply limits transpiration. Stomatal conductance cannot be modelled in isolation, but must be fully coupled with models of photosynthesis/respiration and the transport of water from soil, through roots, stems and leaves to the atmosphere.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: A model is presented which solves simultaneously for leaf-scale stomatal conductance, CO2 assimilation and the energy balance as a function of leaf position within canopies of well-watered vegetation. Fluxes and conductances were calculated separately for sunlit and shaded leaves. A linear dependence of photosynthetic capacity on leaf nitrogen content was assumed, while leaf nitrogen content and light intensity were assumed to decrease exponentially within canopies. Separate extinction coefficients were used for diffuse and direct beam radiation. An efficient Gaussian integration technique was used to compute fluxes and mean conductances for the canopy. The multilayer model synthesizes current knowledge of radiation penetration, leaf physiology and the physics of evaporation and provides insights into the response of whole canopies to multiple, interacting factors. The model was also used to explore sources of variation in the slopes of two simple parametric models (nitrogen- and light-use efficiency), and to set bounds on the magnitudes of the parameters.For canopies low in total N, daily assimilation rates are ∼10% lower when leaf N is distributed uniformly than when the same total N is distributed according to the exponentially decreasing profile of absorbed radiation. However, gains are negligible for plants with high N concentrations. Canopy conductance, Gc should be calculated as Gc=Aσ(fslgsl+fshgsh), where Δ is leaf area index, fsi and fsh are the fractions of sunlit and shaded leaves at each level, and gsi and gsh are the corresponding stomatal conductances. Simple addition of conductances without this weighting causes errors in transpiration calculated using the ‘big-leaf’ version of the Penman-Monteith equation. Partitioning of available energy between sensible and latent heat is very responsive to the parameter describing the sensitivity of stomata to the atmospheric humidity deficit. This parameter also affects canopy conductance, but has a relatively small impact on canopy assimilation.Simple parametric models are useful for extrapolating understanding from small to large scales, but the complexity of real ecosystems is thus subsumed in unexplained variations in parameter values. Simulations with the multilayer model show that both nitrogen- and radiation-use efficiencies depend on plant nutritional status and the diffuse component of incident radiation, causing a 2- to 3-fold variation in these efficiencies.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1365-2486
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geography
    Notes: For surface fluxes of carbon dioxide, the net daily flux is the sum of daytime and nighttime fluxes of approximately the same magnitude and opposite direction. The net flux is therefore significantly smaller than the individual flux measurements and error assessment is critical in determining whether a surface is a net source or sink of carbon dioxide. For carbon dioxide flux measurements, it is an occasional misconception that the net flux is measured as the difference between the net upward and downward fluxes (i.e. a small difference between large terms). This is not the case. The net flux is the sum of individual (half-hourly or hourly) flux measurements, each with an associated error term. The question of errors and uncertainties in long-term flux measurements of carbon and water is addressed by first considering the potential for errors in flux measuring systems in general and thus errors which are relevant to a wide range of timescales of measurement. We also focus exclusively on flux measurements made by the micrometeorological method of eddy covariance. Errors can loosely be divided into random errors and systematic errors, although in reality any particular error may be a combination of both types. Systematic errors can be fully systematic errors (errors that apply on all of the daily cycle) or selectively systematic errors (errors that apply to only part of the daily cycle), which have very different effects. Random errors may also be full or selective, but these do not differ substantially in their properties. We describe an error analysis in which these three different types of error are applied to a long-term dataset to discover how errors may propagate through long-term data and which can be used to estimate the range of uncertainty in the reported sink strength of the particular ecosystem studied.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Plant, cell & environment 12 (1989), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3040
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract. Theory and practice of non-steady-state portable photosynthesis instruments (LI-6000 and 6200, LI-COR Inc., Nebraska, U.S.A.) are presented. Mass balance equations for the time dependence of H2O and CO2 mol fractions within the leaf chamber were used to describe instrument function. Measurements for each run were fitted to an exponential function to estimate average rates of CO2 assimilation and transpiration during the measurement period. Stomatal conductances and intercellular CO2 mol fractions were also computed. Linear data analysis used in the LI-6200 produced similar results for assimilation rates, stomatal conductances and intercellular CO2 concentrations compared to a more rigorous nonlinear analysis, provided humidity within the chamber was kept constant during the measurement period. Instrument performance for CO2 fluxes was confirmed by injecting pure CO2 at steady rates from a microsyringe into the chamber. Miniature evaporimeters were designed to check H2O flux measurements. Significant discrepancies were observed between LI-6200 estimates of H2O fluxes and direct measurement and errors were attributed to adsorption desorption of water vapour on chamber walls or to leaks. The leaf chamber should be stored at humidities and temperatures similar to those during measurement conditions for maximum reliability of results.
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