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  • 1
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Boston, Mass. : American Meteorological Society
    Call number: AWI A7-95-0140
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: V, 269 S.
    ISBN: 0933876637
    Branch Library: AWI Library
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-1472
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract We present airplane measurements of the stably stratified nocturnal boundary layer obtained during the Severe Environmental Storms and Mesoscale Experiment (SESAME) in 1979. The cases presented here were obtained over rolling terrain in central Oklahama, with a mean slope of about 0.003. The results are in general agreement with previous modeling and observational studies for the mean and turbulence structure of the nocturnal boundary layer, with the exception that the eddy diffusivity of heat, and consequently the flux Richardson number are less than expected.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-1472
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Airplane measurements of the stably stratified boundary layer obtained during the Severe Environmental Storms and Mesoscale Experiment (SESAME) over rolling terrain in south-central Oklahoma indicate that considerable horizontal variability exists in the flow on scales of several kilometers. Much of this wave-like structure appears to be tied to the terrain. The criteria for existence of stationary gravity waves indicate that these waves can exist under the observed conditions. The spectrum of terrain variations also supports the existence of these waves. Observed spectra of the vertical velocity have two peaks: one at wavelengths of several kilometers, which is due to waves and the other at wavelengths of about 100 m, which is due to turbulence. The variance at several kilometers wavelength increases somewhat with height at least up to about 800 m, but the variance contributed by turbulence decreases rapidly with height.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-1472
    Keywords: Aircraft measurements ; Entrainment ; Stratocumulus ; Structure functions ; Turbulence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract During the Dynamics and Chemistry of the MarineStratocumulus (DYCOMS) experiment in July–August 1985, the NCAR Electra aircraft flew a series of flight legs just at the top of the marinestratocumulus cloud decks that cap the mixed layer off the coast of southernCalifornia. Because of the corrugated structure of the cloud-top, the aircraft, which was flown at a nearly constant level and adjusted only to maintain its altitude at the average cloud-top height, was alternately within and above the clouds – roughly half the time in each domain. These legs were used to examine the structure of the cloud-top by compositing the segments on either side of the cloud/clear-air interface, which was identified by the transitions of liquid water measured by the Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe (either increasing or decreasing) through a threshold of 0.04 × 10-3 kg m-3.An equivalent vertical distance (EVD) from the cloud-top was obtained from the horizontal flight legs by estimating the average slope of the cloud-top from the cloud-top radiation temperature. The results show that a near discontinuity occurs in variables across cloud top over an EVD of 0.3 m, but that above this, the air has already been modified by boundary-layer air. Thus, cloud-top is not the limit of mixing of boundary-layer air. This mixing may extend to tens of metres or more. The bulk Richardson number in the vicinity of cloud-top increases from near zero within the cloud to about 1.2 at an EVD of 3–6 m above cloud. Fluctuations of the three velocity components within cloud are nearly equal; above cloud the vertical component structure function is about half the horizontal components. The scalar structure functions are about an order of magnitude higher above cloud than in cloud. The structure parameters of temperature and humidity measured just below cloud-top agree reasonably well with predicted values based on a previously-developed model for the clear convective boundary layer. Above cloud, the scalar structure parameters are much larger, but their interpretation is questionable, since this region does notcontain isotropic turbulence.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-0662
    Keywords: Nitrogen oxides ; surface layer ; eddy flux ; surface fluxes ; turbulence exchange
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract The chemical reactivity of NO and NO2 is so rapid that their fluxes and concentrations can be considerably modified from that expected for conserved variables in the atmospheric surface layer, even as low as a meter above the surface. Fitzjarrald and Lenschow (1983) have calculated flux and mean concentration profiles for NO, NO2 and O3 in the surface layer using numerical techniques. However, their solutions do not approach the photostationary state at large heights. Here we solve a simpler set of equations analytically (i.e. we assume a constant O3 concentration and neutral hydrodynamic stability), and are able to show how the flux profiles behave at large heights assuming that the concentrations approach their photostationary values. We find, for example, that at large heights the ratio of the flux of NO to that of NO2 is equal to the ratio of their concentrations. These results are relevant to estimating surface fluxes of NO and NO2, and are most applicable to nonurban environments where NO and NO2 concentrations are usually much less than O3 concentration.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-1472
    Keywords: Baroclinic boundary layers ; Boundary-layer wind profiles ; Convective boundary layer ; Entrainment ; Mixed layer
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract A comprehensive planetary boundary-layer (PBL) and synoptic data set is used to isolate the mechanisms that determine the vertical shear of the horizontal wind in the convective mixed layer. To do this, we compare a fair-weather convective PBL with no vertical shear through the mixed layer (10 March 1992), with a day with substantial vertical shear in the north-south wind component (27 February). The approach involves evaluating the terms of the budget equations for the two components of the vertical shear of the horizontal wind; namely: the time-rate-of-change or time-tendency term, differential advection, the Coriolis terms (a thermal wind term and a shear term), and the second derivative of the vertical transport of horizontal momentum with respect to height (turbulent-transport term). The data, gathered during the 1992 STorm-scale Operational and Research Meteorology (STORM) Fronts Experiments Systems Test (FEST) field experiment, are from gust-probe aircraft horizontal legs and soundings, 915-MHz wind profilers, a 5-cm Doppler radar, radiosondes, and surface Portable Automated Mesonet (PAM) stations in a roughly 50 × 50 km boundary-layer array in north-eastern Kansas, nested in a mesoscale-to-synoptic array of radiosondes and surface data. We present evidence that the shear on 27 February is related to the rapid growth of the convective boundary layer. Computing the shear budget over a fixed depth (the final depth of the mixed layer), we find that the time-tendency term dominates, reflecting entrainment of high-shear air from above the boundary layer. We suggest that shear within the mixed layer occurs when the time-tendency term is sufficiently large that the shear-reduction terms – namely the turbulent-transport term and differential advection terms – cannot compensate. In contrast, the tendency term is small for the slowly-growing PBL of 10 March, resulting in a balance between the Coriolis terms and the turbulent-transport term. Thus, the thermal wind appears to influence mixed-layer shear only indirectly, through its role in determining the entrained shear.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 369 (1994), S. 193-193 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] SIR - The assertion1 that the lower troposphere (1,000 - 400 hPa, or about 0 - 7,000 m) shows a weekly periodicity in temperature is surprising in view of available estimates of human energy consumption and its direct impact on the temperature of the lower troposphere. The world energy consumption ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: In situ airborne measurements of turbulent heat, moisture, momentum, ozone, and carbon monoxide fluxes in a convective boundary layer were obtained over a tropical rain forest between 1100 and 1630 LT on May 4, 1987. The aircraft flight path was chosen so as to fly over the tower site at the Ducke Forest Reserve near Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. Both turbulence statistics and mean quantities were used to study the budgets of heat, water vapor, ozone, and carbon monoxide. The ozone budget study shows an accumulation rate in the boundary layer of 0.3 + or - 0.2 ppbv/h. The surface resistance to ozone during this flight was determined to be 0.06 + or - 0.03 s/cm, while the aerodynamic resistance was 0.14-0.17 s/cm. Results from the CO budget analysis show a midday accumulation rate of 0.6 + or - 0.3 ppbv/h in the Amazonian boundary layer. The evidence suggests production of CO in the PBL. A source of CO may exist below the lowest flight level (about 150 m), although it was not possible to determine what part of the flux at flight level was due to chemical production and what part may be due to surface emission.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 95; 16875-16
    Format: text
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) airborne infrared lidar system (NAILS) used in the 1987 First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) off the coast of California is a 10.6 microns wavelength carbon dioxide lidar system constructed by Ron Schwiesow and co-workers at NCAR. The lidar is particularly well suited for detailed observations of cloud shapes; i.e., height of cloud top (when flying above cloud and looking down) and cloud base (when flying below cloud and looking up) along the flight path. A brief summary of the lidar design characteristics is given. The lidar height resolution of plus or minus 3 m allows for the distance between the aircraft and cloud edge to be determined with this accuracy; however, the duration of the emitted pulse is approximately 3 microseconds, which corresponds to a 500 m pulse length. Therefore, variations in backscatter intensities within the clouds can normally not be resolved. Hence the main parameter obtainable from the lidar is distance to cloud; in some cases the cloud depth can also be determined. During FIRE the lidar was operational on 7 of the 10 Electra flights, and data were taken when the distance between cloud and aircraft (minimum range) was at least 500 m. The lidar was usually operated at 8 Hz, which at a flight speed of 100 m s(-1) translates into a horizontal resolution of about 12 m. The backscatter as function of time (equivalent to distance) for each laser pulse is stored in digital form on magnetic tape. Currently, three independent variables are available to the investigators on the FIRE Electra data tapes: lidar range to cloud, strength of return (relative power), and pulse width of return, which is related to penetration depth.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA, Langley Research Center, FIRE Science Results 1988; p 313-317
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A major goal of research on marine stratocumulus is to try to understand the processes that generate and dissipate them. One approach to studying this problem is to investigate the boundary layer structure in the vicinity of a transition from a cloudy to a cloud-free region to document the differences in structure on each side of the transition. Since stratiform clouds have a major impact on the radiation divergence in the boundary layer, the transition from a cloudy to a clear boundary layer is a region of large horizontal inhomogeneity in air temperature and turbulence intensity. This leads to a considerable difference in horizontal and vertical transports between the cloudy and cloud-free regions. Measurements are used from the NCAR Electra aircraft during flights 5 (7 July 1987) and 10 (18 July 1987) of FIRE for this purpose. Flight 5 coincided with a LANDSAT overflight, and was designed to investigate the transition across a well-defined N-S cloud boundary, since the LANDSAT image can document the cloud cover in considerable detail. Turbulence legs were flown about 60 km on both sides of the cloud boundary. Flight 10 was flown at night in an area of scattered small cumuli and broken cloud patches.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA, Langley Research Center, FIRE Science Results 1989; p 213-217
    Format: application/pdf
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