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  • 1
    ISSN: 0273-1177
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Advances in Space Research 8 (1988), S. 135-138 
    ISSN: 0273-1177
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Advances in Space Research 5 (1985), S. 411-414 
    ISSN: 0273-1177
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: antihypertensive therapy ; sleep disturbances ; depression ; nightmares ; population study ; women
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Of 1302 women aged 44–66 years in a population study in Göteborg, Sweden, in 1974–75, who were representative of women of all the ages studied in the area, 165 were taking antihypertensive drugs, mostly β-blockers and diuretics. The prevalence of sleep disturbances, nightmares, tiredness and melancholia or depression was studied in the total population sample, and a comparison was made between women who were or were not taking antihypertensive drugs. In the entire population sample no significant difference was found between the various age strata studied, although with increasing age there was a trend towards fewer complaints of nightmares, but a larger number of sleep disturbances as a whole. No difference was found between women taking or not taking various types of single-drug therapy or combinations of antihypertensive drugs.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1615-6110
    Keywords: Gentianaceae ; Gentianella amarella ; G. campestris ; Seasonal differentiation ; seasonal ecotypes ; flowering phenology ; germination ; reproductive isolation ; environmental factors ; evolutionary history
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract 18 populations of the grassland biennialsGentianella amarella andG. campestris were cultivated to clarify the genetical vs. environmental components of the flowering phenology, and the reproductive isolation caused by seasonal differentiation. The influence of some environmental factors was tested. The seasonal variation persisted in cultivation, and the plants could normally be assigned to distinct aestival or autumnal groups, with no reproductive contact. Flowering phenology was affected by environmental factors, but not to such an extent that the reproductive isolation was broken. The observed phenological variation was not reflected by a corresponding variation in present management practices. Management history and possible non-anthropogenic factors are discussed as alternative explanations.
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The plasma composition experiment covers energies from OeV to 17 keV/e and has a mass-per-charge range from less than 1 to about 150 amu. Measurements were made from the inner ring current region to the plasma sheet, magnetotail lobes, and the magnetopause boundary layers and beyond. Possibly the most significant results from the experiment are those related to energetic (0+) ions of terrestrial origin. These ions are found in every region of the magnetosphere reached by the spacecraft and can have energy and pitch-angle distributions that are similar to those traditionally associated with protons of solar wind origin. The (0+) ions are commonly the most numerous ions in the 0.1 - 17 keV/e energy range and are often a substantial part of the ion population at large distances as well, especially during geomagnetically disturbed conditions. An overview of results obtained for the (0+) and other ions with energies in the 0.1 - 17 keV/e range in the magnetosphere is given.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: LMSC-F018862 , NAS 1.26:175306 , NASA-CR-175306
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The shift from wave-generated anomalous resistivity toward the more large-scale effects of magnetic confinement of current carrying plasmas was inspired by the more extensive data on auroral particle distribution functions that were made available, data that may often seem consistent with a dissipation-free acceleration of auroral electrons over an extended altitude range. Efforts to interpret these data have brought new vigor to the concept that a smooth and static electric field can be self-consistently generated by suitable pitch angle anisotropies among the high altitude particle populations, different for electrons and ions, and that such an electric field is both necessary and sufficient to maintain the plasma in a quasi-neutral steady state. Certain aspects of this concept are reviewed and criticized, both from a general theoretical standpoint and from the standpoint of what is known about the magnetospheric environment. It is argued that this concept has flaws and that the actual physical problem is considerably more complicated, requiring a more complex electric field, possibly including double layer structures.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA. Marshall Space Flight Center Double Layers in Astrophysics; p 275-285
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The Applications Technology Satellite (ATS-6), launched into synchronous orbit on 30 May 1974, carried a set of six particle detectors and a triaxial fluxgate magnetometer. The particle detectors were able to determine the ion and electron distribution functions from 1 to greater than 10 to the 8th power eV. It was found that the magnetic field is weaker and more tilted than predicted by models which neglect internal plasma and that there is a seasonal dependence to the magnitude and tilt. ATS-6 magnetic field measurements showed the effects of field-aligned currents associated with substorms, and large fluxes of field-aligned particles were observed with the particle detectors. Encounters with the plasmasphere revealed the existence of warm plasma with temperatures up to 30 eV. A variety of correlated waves in both the particles and fields were observed: pulsation continuous oscillations, seen predominantly in the plasmasphere bulge; ultralow frequency (ULF) standing waves; ring current proton ULF waves; and low frequency waves that modulate the energetic electrons. In additon, large scale waves on the energetic-ion-trapping boundary were observed, and the intensity of energetic electrons was modulated in association with the passage of sector boundaries of the interplanetary magnetic field.
    Keywords: LAUNCH VEHICLES AND SPACE VEHICLES
    Type: G-7702-F15 , NASA-TP-1101
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  • 9
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: On the basis of field and particle observations, it is suggested that a bright auroral display is a part of a magnetosphere-ionosphere current system which is fed by a charge-separation process in the outer magnetosphere (or the solar wind). The upward magnetic-field-aligned current is flowing out of the display, carried mainly by down-flowing electrons from the hot-particle populations in the outer magnetosphere (the ambient cold electrons being depleted at high altitudes). As a result of the magnetic mirroring of these downflowing current carriers, a large potential drop is set up along the magnetic field, increasing both the number flux and the kinetic energy of the precipitating electrons. It is found that this simple basic model, when combined with wave-particle interactions, may be able to explain a highly diversified selection of auroral particle observations. It may thus be possible to explain both inverted-V events and auroral rays in terms of a static parallel electric field, and the electric field may be compatible with a strongly variable pitch-angle distribution of the precipitating electrons, including distributions peaked at 90 deg as well as 0 deg. This model may also provide a simple explanation of the simultaneous precipitation of electrons and collimated positive ions.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-X-64998
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-8477
    Keywords: browsing ; compensatory regrowth ; Gentianella campestris ; plasticity ; quantitative genetics ; tolerance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract In the framework of phenotypic plasticity, tolerance to browsing can be operationally defined as a norm of reaction comparing plant performance in undamaged and damaged conditions. Genetic variation in tolerance is then indicated by heterogeneity in the slopes of norms of reaction from a population. We investigated field gentian (Gentianella campestris) tolerance to damage in the framework of phenotypic plasticity using a sample of maternal lines from natural populations grown under common garden conditions and randomly split into either a control or an artificial clipping treatment. We found a diversity of tolerance norms of reaction at both the population and family level: the impacts of clipping ranged from poor tolerance (negative slope) to overcompensation (positive slope). We detected heterogeneity in tolerance norms of reaction in four populations. Similarly, we found a variety of plastic architectural responses to clipping and genetic variation in these responses in several populations. Overall, we found that the most tolerant populations were late flowering and also exhibit the greatest plastic increases in node (meristem) production in response to damage. We studied damage-imposed natural selection on plasticity in plant architecture in 10 of the sampled populations. In general, there was strong positive direct selection on final number of nodes for both control and clipped plants. However, the total selection on nodes (direct + indirect selection) within each treatment category depended heavily on the frequency of damage and cross-treatment genetic correlations in node production. In some cases, strong correlated responses to selection across the damage treatment led to total selection against nodes in the more rare environment. This could ultimately lead to the evolution of maladaptive phenotypes in one or both of the treatment categories. These results suggest that tolerance and a variety of architectural responses to damage may evolve by both direct and indirect responses to natural selection. While the present study demonstrates the potential importance of cross-treatment genetic correlations in directing the evolution of tolerance traits, such as branch or node production, we did not find any strong evidence of genetic trade-offs in candidate tolerance traits between undamaged and damaged conditions.
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