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  • 1
    ISSN: 0921-4526
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    ISSN: 0959-437X
    Keywords: [abr] IrRNA; large ribosomal RNA ; [abr] Sl; Steel ; [abr] W; white-spotting ; [abr] gs; grandchildless ; [abr] par; partitioning
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Weed research 30 (1990), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3180
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Batch adsorption Koc values of fluroxypyr-methylheptyl ester (20000 1kg−1) and fluroxypyr (74 1kg−1) indicate increased mobility after hydrolysis of the ester to fluroxypyr. After 1 to 2 weeks incubation time in four soils, desorption Koc values of fluroxypyr were 100-200 1kg−1 but increased to 400-700 1kg−1 after 8 weeks. The increase in desorption Koc was related to incubation time and not to concentration, and it was interpreted as an entrapment of the fluroxypyr within the soil organic matter. Similar increases in desorption Koc with incubation time were noticed for pyridinol and methoxypyridine metabolites of fluroxypyr. Koc values also increased along the metabolic sequence fluroxypyr/pyridinol/methoxypyridine, with maximum Koc values of 3000-4000 1 kg−1 for the methoxypyridine metabolite. Hence mobility of the fluroxypyr aromatic ring strongly decreases with increased residence time in the soil.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Weed research 33 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3180
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Dissipation of fluroxypyr in North Dakota lake waters was examined in three laboratory studies: photolysis, aerobic metabolism, and anaerobic metabolism. Photolysis was negligible in sterilized water, with and without natural photosensitizers. In 1:10 sediment:water systems, 50% disappearance times of 0.5–2 weeks were observed in the metabolism studies (25°C). Major metabolites (〉10%) included the dichloropyridinol and 3-chloropyridinol derivatives, while the 5-chloropyridinol derivative appeared (〈7%) in anaerobic systems. The pyridinols disappeared readily in aerobic but more slowly in anaerobic systems. In typical pond and lake waters, fluroxypyr and pyridinols are expected to disappear by the end of the growing season. Devenir de fluroxypyr dans l'eau La dissipation du fluroxypyr dans les eaux de lac dans le Dakota Nord a étéétudiée dans 3 études de laboratoires: photolyse, métabolisme aérobique et métabolisme anaérobique. La photolyse était négligeable dans I'eau stérilisée, avec et sans photosensibilisants naturels. Dans des systémes sédiments/eau de 1/10 des temps de disparition 50% de 0-5-2 semaines ont été observées dans les études de meéabolisme (25°C). Les principaux metabolites (〉10%) comprenaient les dérivés dichloropyridinol et 3-chloropyridinol, tandis que le dérivé 5-chloro-pyridinol apparaissait (〈7%) dans les systemés anaérobiques. Les pyridinols disparaissent rapidement en aérobie mais lentement dans les systémes anaerobiques. Dans les eaux typiques de mares et d'étangs, le fluroxypyr et les pyridinols sont supposés avoir disparu à la fin de la saison de croissance. Verhalten von Fluroxypyr in Wasser Der Verlust an Rückständen von Fluroxypyr im Wasser aus Seen in North Dakota wurde hinsichtlich der Photolyse sowie des aeroben und anaeroben Metabolismus untersucht. Die Photolyse war in sterilisiertem Wasser mit und ohne natürlichen Photosensitizern vernachlässigbar. Bei den Metabolismusuntersuchungen bei 25°C in l:10-Sediment:Wasser-Systemen lagen die Zeiten für 50%igen Verlust bei 0,5.2 Wochen. Zu den Hauptmetaboliten (〉10%) zählten Dichlorpyridinol und 3-Chlor-pyridinol-Derivate, während 5-Chlorpyridinol-Derivate in anaeroben Systemen unter 7% blieben. Die Pyridinole verschwanden rasch in aeroben, aber viel langsamer in anaerobischen Systemen. In solchen Gewässern werden Fluroxypyr und Pyridinole erwartungsgemäß zum Ende einer Vegetationsperiode verschwunden sein.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Weed research 33 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3180
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The degradation rate of the herbicide flumetsulam was examined in Hoytville clay soil at five temperatures and optimal moisture. Half-lives were 246 days at 7.5°C, 115 days at 15.0°C, 49 days at 26.1°C, 34 days at 35.9°C, and 27 days at 44.0°C. Construction of an Arrhenius diagram (In k = -Ea/RT+In A) allowed the rate constant k to be calculated for any temperature T. When k was inserted into the first order rate equation (c = c0-kt), the concentration of flumetsulam could be calculated on a monthly basis for any soil.Predictions from this theoretical model were compared with data from three US field locations and found to accurately predict soil residues of flumetsulam under favourable moisture conditions, but not during periods of drought. Degradation dans le sol du flumetsulam à differentes temperatures au laboratoire et en plein champ Le taux de dégradation de l'herbicide flumetsulam a étéétudié dans un sol argileux de Hoytville à 5 temperatures et à l'humidité optimale. Les demi-vies ont été de 246 jours à 7,5°C, 115 jours à 15°C, 49 jours à 26,1°C, 34 jours à 35,9°C et 27 jours à 44°C. L'établissement d'un diagramme d'Arrhenius (In k= Ea/RT+ln A) a permis de calculer le taux constant k à chaque température. Quand k est inserré dans la première partie de l'équation (c = c0e_kt), la concentration de flumetsulam peut être calculée sur une base mensuelle dans n'importe quel sol. Les prévisions de ce modèle théorique ont été comparérs avec des données de plein champ américaines, et on a noté que ces prévisions étaient correctes sous humidité favorable mais non pendant les périodes de sécheresse. Abbau von Flumetsulam im Boden bei ver-schiedenen Temperaturen unter Labor-und Freilandbedingungen Die Abbaurate des Herbizids Flumetsulam wurde bei 5 Temperaturstufen und optimalem Feuchtigkeitsgehalt in einem Hoytville-Ton-boden untersucht. Die Halbwertszeiten waren 246 Tage bei 7,5 °C, 115 Tage bei 15,0 °C, 49 Tage bei 26,1 °C, 34 Tage bei 35,9 °C und 27 Tage bei 44,0 °C. Die Anwendung der Ar-rhenius-Gleichung ermöglicht die Bestimmung der Abbau-Konstante k bei jeder Temperatur T. Wenn k in die Abbaugleichung nach Kinetik 1. Ordnung eingefügt wird, können Flumet-sulam-Konzentrationen auf einer monatlichen Basis für jeden Boden abgeleitet werden. Vorhersagen nach diesem Modell wurden mil Rückstandswerten von 3 Standorten in den USA verglichen, wobei sich eine gute Übereinstimmung der beobachteten und simulierten Werte unter günstigen Feuchte-bedingungen ergab, nicht jedoch fur Trocken-perioden.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Weed research 31 (1991), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3180
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Fluroxypyr-MHE (methylheptyl ester) was applied to small field plots containing Londo sandy loam soil. After 30 days, fluroxypyr had degraded to about 60% of the initial concentration, but was still the main component, while after 120 and 366 days the methoxypyridine metabolite was the main component in the soil. At 30, 120, and 366 days, lettuce, turnips, green beans, soybeans, and wheat were planted and grown with no observed injury. Residues of 14C in the edible crop fractions were indistinguishable from 14C in control plants exposed to 14CO2, while residues in plant greens and chaff were low (0.1–0.2 mg kg−1), with little evidence of fluroxypyr and no evidence of metabolite uptake. These results indicate that the methoxypyridine metabolite, if present in the soil, does not harm and is not taken up into the plants.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Weed research 29 (1989), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3180
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary. Fluroxypyr-MHE (methylheptyl ester) was hydrolysed to fluroxypyr in soil/water suspensions at rates several thousand times that in distilled, deionized water at similar pH and temperature: the pH 7, 25°C half-life in water was 454days, compared to 2, 5, and 5·5 hours in 1 : 100 soil/water suspensions of a Barnes loam, Catlin silt loam, and Mhoon clay. The catalysed hydrolysis did not occur in decanted, aqueous supernatants of centrifuged Barnes soil suspensions, nor in Barnes soil/water suspensions which had been autoclaved. In soils incubated (26·1°C) at field moist conditions, only 1 to 2% of the fluroxypyr-MHE had not hydrolysed after three days. An extracellular enzyme was suggested as the catalyst.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-3180
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The degradation of DE-498 (proposed common name flumetsulam) was studied in 21 US soils as a first step in developing a management plan for this new herbicide. Degradation half-lives were shorter in soils that adsorbed the compound less. Adsorption was lower in soils with higher pH and lower organic carbon content. Degradation half-lives were thus influenced by both pH and organic carbon: they were in the range 2–4 weeks in higher pH soils (pH 5 〈inlineGraphic alt="geqslant R: gt-or-equal, slanted" extraInfo="nonStandardEntity" href="urn:x-wiley:00431737:WRE197:ges" location="ges.gif"/〉 7.0) unless the organic carbon content was above 2.5%, at which half-lives were in the range 1–3 months. In medium pH soils (6.4 〈inlineGraphic alt="leqslant R: less-than-or-eq, slant" extraInfo="nonStandardEntity" href="urn:x-wiley:00431737:WRE197:les" location="les.gif"/〉 pH 〈inlineGraphic alt="leqslant R: less-than-or-eq, slant" extraInfo="nonStandardEntity" href="urn:x-wiley:00431737:WRE197:les" location="les.gif"/〉 6.9) half-lives were 1–2 months, while in lower pH soils (5.9 〈inlineGraphic alt="leqslant R: less-than-or-eq, slant" extraInfo="nonStandardEntity" href="urn:x-wiley:00431737:WRE197:les" location="les.gif"/〉 pH 〈inlineGraphic alt="leqslant R: less-than-or-eq, slant" extraInfo="nonStandardEntity" href="urn:x-wiley:00431737:WRE197:les" location="les.gif"/〉 6.3) they were 1–4 months. The laboratory data were supported by the response of sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.) planted 1 year after application of flumetsulam to different soils. A quantitative model relating half-life to sorption Kd (r2= 0.85) was coupled with an additional equation relating sorption Kd to the proportion of neutral and anionic forms of the compound at different pH values. The study allows estimates of this herbicide's degradation in soil to be made if its pH and organic carbon content are known. Degradation d'un herbicide sulfonamide en fonction de la capacité d'absorption du sol La dégradation du flumetsulam a étéétudiée dans les sols aux Etats Unis comme premier stade dans le développement d'un plan d'utilisation de ce nouvel herbicide. Les demi-vies de dégradation étaient plus courtes dans les sols qui absorbaient moins le produit. L'absorption était plus faible dans les sols à pH élevé et à faible teneur en carbone organique. Les demi-vies étaient ainsi sous l'influence du pH et du carbone organique: elles étaient de 2 à 4 semaines pour les pH de sols élevés (pH 〈inlineGraphic alt="geqslant R: gt-or-equal, slanted" extraInfo="nonStandardEntity" href="urn:x-wiley:00431737:WRE197:ges" location="ges.gif"/〉 7) sauf si le carbone organique était au dessus de 2,5%, dans ce cas, les demi-vies etaient de 1 à 3 mois. Dans les sols à pH moyen (6,4 〈inlineGraphic alt="leqslant R: less-than-or-eq, slant" extraInfo="nonStandardEntity" href="urn:x-wiley:00431737:WRE197:les" location="les.gif"/〉 pH 〈inlineGraphic alt="leqslant R: less-than-or-eq, slant" extraInfo="nonStandardEntity" href="urn:x-wiley:00431737:WRE197:les" location="les.gif"/〉 6,9) les demi-vies étaient de 1 à 2 mois, tandis que dans les sols à pH faible (5,9 〈inlineGraphic alt="leqslant R: less-than-or-eq, slant" extraInfo="nonStandardEntity" href="urn:x-wiley:00431737:WRE197:les" location="les.gif"/〉 pH 〈inlineGraphic alt="leqslant R: less-than-or-eq, slant" extraInfo="nonStandardEntity" href="urn:x-wiley:00431737:WRE197:les" location="les.gif"/〉 6,3) elles étaient de 1 à 4 mois. Les résultats de laboratoire ont été confirmés par le comportement de tournesols plantés un an aprfès l'application de flumetsulam dans différents sols. Un modèle reliant la demi-vie au coefficient d'absorption Kd (r2= 0.85) a été couplé avec une équation additionelle reliant le coefficient d'absorption Kd à la proportion de particules neutres et anioniques de la molécule aux différents pH. L'étude permet de faire des estimations de la dégradation de cet herbicide dans le sol dès que le pH et la teneur en carbone organique sont connus. Abbau eines Sulfonamid-Herbizids als Funktion der Bodensorption Der Abbau von Flumetsulam (DE-498) wurde in 21 Böden untersucht, um eine Grundlage zur Produktentwicklung dieses neuen Herbizids zu gewinnen. Die 50%ige Verlustrate (DT50) war in schwächer sorptiven Böden kürzer. Bei hohem pH-Wert und geringem Gehalt an organischer Substanz war die Adsorption schwächer. Die DT50 wurde durch den pH-Wert und den Gehalt organischer Substanz wie folgt beeinflußt: Sie betrug 2 bis 4 Wochen in Böden mit pH 〉7,0 (wenn der Corg-Gehalt nicht über 2,5% lag; dort dann 1 bis 3 Monate), 1 bis 2 Monate bei 6,4 〈 pH 〈 6,9 und 1 bis 4 Monate bei 5,9 〈 pH 〈 6,3). Die Ergebnisse der Laboruntersuchungen wurden durch Untersuchungen an Sonnenblumen gestützt. die 1 Jahr nach Applikation von Flumetsulam auf verschiedenen Böden angebaut wurden. Ein quantitatives Modell über das Verhältnis der Verlustrate zum Sorptionskoeffizienten Kd (r2= 0,85) wurde mit einer zusätzhchen Gleichung der Beziehung des Sorptionskoeffizienten Kd zum Verhältnis der neutralen und der anionischen Verbindungen des Wirkstoffs bei verschiedenen pH-Werten verknüpft. Aufgrund der Untersuchungen kann der Abbau dieses Herbizids in Böden bekannten pH-Werts und Corg-Gehalts abgeschätzt werden.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Weed research 30 (1990), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3180
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Fluroxypyr-MHE (methylheptyl ester) was added to four soils and incubated at 26 ± 1°C and approximately 0.1 MPa moisture. After initial rapid hydrolysis of the ester to fluroxypyr, fluroxypyr degraded with half-lives of 12, 12, 23, and 7 days in Barnes loam, Catlin silt loam, Hanford sandy loam, and Mhoon clay soils, respectively. Two metabolites (4-amino-3,5-dichloro-6-fluoro-pyridin-2-ol and 4-amino-3, 5-dichloro - 6 - fluoro - 2 -methoxypyridine) were identified, with the pyridinol at its maximum concentration after 2 to 4 weeks of incubation, and the methoxypyridine after 8 weeks. Degradation rates of fluroxypyr and its pyridinol were not significantly altered by diurnally varying soil temperature (21°C to 32°C) or moisture, nor by the presence of growing grass. Methoxypyridine dissipation was more rapid under greenhouse conditions, suggesting that laboratory studies underestimated the dissipation rate of this metabolite.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0020-1650
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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