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  • 1
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: Murine embryonal carcinoma ; Interferon ; F9 cells ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Murine embryonal carcinoma (EC) F9 cells do not produce interferon (IFN) at the protein or RNA level in response to inducing agents, while retinoic acid differentiated F9 cells do produce IFN. A probe was constructed spanning positions -104 to -39 of the human β-IFN upstream regulatory region to examine this developmental control at the level of a transcriptional regulatory mechanism. Gel mobility shift analyses were used to examine this molecular mechanism to determine whether the differential expression of positive or negative trans-acting factors may act to control β-IFN expression in undifferentiated EC cells. These analyses showed that while nuclear extracts from poly-l,C induced L929 cells, in the IFN producing cell line, showed two shifted bands, nuclear extracts from both induced and uninduced F9 cells showed only one shifted band using the -104/ -39 probe. While this single shifted band co-migrated with the faster migrating species of L929 cell extracts, competition analysis revealed differences between the two complexes. An oligonucleotide representing the positive regulatory domain PRDII competed efficiently for the probe when induced F9 cell extracts were examined, but failed to compete when induced L929 cell extracts were examined. In contrast, an oligonucleotide representing the positive regulatory domain PRDI competed very well when induced L929 cell extracts were examined but had only a minimal effect when induced F9 cell extracts were examined. These data suggest the involvement of developmentally regulated transcriptional factors(s) which have yet to be characterized.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0091-7419
    Keywords: simian virus 40 ; flow cytometry ; DNA synthesis induction ; transformation ; human diploid cells ; Life Sciences ; Molecular Cell Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Simian virus 40 (SV40) is capable of inducing cellular DNA synthesis in permissive and nonpermissive cells. Utilizing flow cytometry, we analyzed the DNA content changes in two diploid human cell strains and two monkey cell lines. The osteogenesis imperfects (OI) human skin fibroblasts were induced into DNA synthesis, and within one to two cell generations, a polyploid cell population was produced. With WI-38 phase II cells, a similar pattern of increased cycling of cells into DNA synthesis was observed; however, the majority (∼60%) of the cells were blocked in the G2 + M phase of the cell cycle. At later time intervals, an increase in the G1 population was demonstrated. The two monkey cell lines responded to SV40 virus with an accumulation of cells in the G2 + M phase of the cell cycle. Thus, two diploid human cell strains exhibited different cell cycle kinetics early after infection with SV40 virus. The one strain (WI-38) behaved similarly to the two monkey cell lines studied. The other strain (OI) responded similarly to nonpermissive (transformin) cells infected with SV40 virus.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0275-3723
    Keywords: murine teratocarcinoma ; embryonal carcinoma ; SV40 ; infection ; T antigen ; immunoprecipitation ; replication ; Chemistry ; Molecular Cell Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The stem cell of the murine teratocarcinoma is refractory to infection with Simian virus 40 and polyoma. Utilizing various procedures, we attempted to alter this block to infection by modifying the infection procedure. Multiple infections with high-titer SV40 and pretreatment of cells with DEAE-dextran or the carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline l-oxide did not induce embryonal carcinoma cells to produce T- antigen. Co-infection with adenovirus 5, which infects the embryonal carcinoma, and SV40 did not induce the expression of SV40 Tantigen. Therefore, these procedures did not overcome the block to virus infection. The assay for the SV40 T antigen was immunofluorescence; however, the immunoprecipitation technique did not detect T antigen in the infected embryonal carcinoma cells. Finally, the viral DNA present in the embryonal carcinoma was examined for its ability to replicate. These studies showed that viral DNA was not replicating as assayed by the viral DNA's sensitivity to UV irradiation when replicating in the presence of 5-bromodeoxyundine.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: A pseudodiploid clone of Chinese hamster cells transformed in vitro with Simian virus 40 (SV40) was isolated from soft agar and injected into nude mice through three successive passages with a short in vitro cultivation between each animal inoculation. The original clone and the three subsequent tumor populations were characterized in regard to SV40 T antigen staining, modal chromosome number, and Giemsa-banded karyotype. All tumor cell lines maintained the pseudodiploid mode, as well as the positive SV40 T antigen staining. Nonrandom chromosomal changes included loss of one of the X chromosomes, additions of abnormal variants of chromosomes No. 1 and No. 2, the appearance of unidentified marker chromosomes, and the loss of autosomes No. 5, No. 6, and No. 11. The deletion of one of the X chromosomes occurred with about the same frequency in all cell lines. Additions of abnormal chromosomes No. 1 and No. 2 tended to recur more often in the tumor cell lines than in the original clone. The appearance of marker chromosomes, as well as the loss of autosomes No. 5, No. 6, and No. 11 demonstrated a correlation with tumorigenicity. Yet, the three successive passages of the cells through the animal did not select for a tumor population with a single, homogeneous karyotype.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Cultures of the multipotential stem cell, embryonal carcinoma (EC), of a murine teratocarcinoma were treated with 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU). Within 2-4 days at concentrations of 1-50 m̈gm/ml of BrdU, there was a marked change in the morphology of cells observed by light and electron microscopy. A comparison of the growth potential showed that for up to four days the BrdU-treated cultures were similar to untreated cultures. When these BrdU-treated cells were infected with Simian virus 40 (SV40) and polyoma virus (Py), there was an increase in susceptibility of the treated cells. The untreated embryonal carcinoma cells were refractory. These results suggest that BrdU modifies the embryonal carcinoma cells to allow infection with two DNA viruses.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Chinese hamster embryo cells transformed with the tsA 58 mutant of Simian virus 40 express the transformed phenotype at the permissive temperature (33°C or 37°C) and a “normal” phenotype at the nonpermissive temperature (40.5°C). Immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation of T antigens demonstrated that the “T” antigen (100 K) has an increase rate of synthesis and degradation at 40.5°C. However, the cells continue to replicate at the nonpermissive temperature when assayed by flow cytometry and autoradiography. This DNA synthesis was cellular, not viral, and not owing to an increase in DNA repair. When the cell cycle distributions of G1, S, and G2 + M were assayed by the fraction labeled mitoses method, no differences were evident at the permissive and nonpermissive temperature; however, the doubling time was lengthened at 40.5°C, the tsA transformed cells are cycling and dying. However, if the transformed cells are seeded onto monolayers of normal Chinese hamster cells at 40.5°C, the cells are growth arrested when measured by growth assays, flow cytometry, autoradiography, and immunofluorescence for T antigen. Therefore, growth arrest can be obtained in tsA 58 transformed Chinese hamster cells when cocultured with normal Chinese hamster cells.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Murine embryonal carcinoma (EC) cells fail to express viral T antigen following infection with polyoma (Py) virus, while some differentiated derivatives are fully susceptible to viral infection. The block to expression in EC cells apparently occurs after adsorption and penetration but prior to the synthesis of early viral proteins. The F9 EC cell line was employed to further investigate the failure of Py gene expression in EC cells as well as the viral susceptibility of certain differentiated cell types. F9 cultures treated with retinoic acid (RA) or RA in combination with dibutyryl cAMP (dBcAMP) are quantitatively induced to differentiate to endodermal cell types. When the fate of the viral DNA was examined in F9 EC cells, free viral DNA was observed early after infection but was eventually lost with continued cell growth. Cultures induced to differentiate in the presence of RA demonstrated limited viral susceptibility which increased with prolonged RA exposure. Polyoma sensitivity did not directly parallel basement membrane antigen production, a marker used to distinguish this differentiated endodermal cell type. Viral gene expression could be obtained if Py DNA was introduced into the cells prior to RA induction. In contrast, the endodermal progeny derived from a dual treatment with RA plus dBcAMP appeared highly refractory to Py infection.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0021-9541
    Keywords: Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Multipotential stem cells of a murine teratocarcinoma are resistant to typical infection with either polyoma virus (PV) or Simian virus 40 (SV40). Differentiated progeny of the stem cells are susceptible to infection in a manner identical to other mouse somatic cells, i.e., they are permissive for PV and nonpermissive for SV40. The early interactions between the stem cells (embryonal carcinoma or EC cells) and SV40 and PV were studied. Virions adsorbed to and penetrated into the cytoplasm and nucleus of EC cells, but did not induce expression of T antigen in the EC nuclei. Purified SV40 DNA was capable of inducing T antigen in differentiated teratocarcinoma cells but not in EC cells. Virus could not be rescued from EC cells previously exposed to SV40. The resistance of the stem cells to infection apparently involves a block in the infectious cycle after adsorption and penetration but before T antigen induction.
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