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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-06-26
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-06-08
    Keywords: Oceanography
    Type: CNES/NASA/NOAA/ESA, Ocean Observing System for Climate; Saint Raphael; France
    Format: text
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Since the mid-nineteenth century the Earth's surface has warmed, and models indicate that human activities have caused part of the warming by altering the radiative balance of the atmosphere. Simple theories suggest that global warming will reduce the strength of the mean tropical ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-02-17
    Description: Most studies of the ethnic composition of destination neighbourhoods after residential moves do not take into account the types of moves people have made. However, from an individual perspective, different types of moves may result in neighbourhood environments that differ in terms of their ethnic composition from those in which individuals previously lived. We investigate how the ethnic residential context changes for individuals as a result of different types of mobility (immobility, intra-urban mobility, suburbanisation, and long-distance migration) for residents of the segregated post-Soviet city of Tallinn. We compare the extent to which Estonian- and Russian-speakers integrate in residential terms. Using unique longitudinal Census data (2000-2011) we tracked changes in the individual ethnic residential context of both groups. We found that the moving destinations of Estonian- and Russian-speakers diverge. When Estonians move, their new neighbourhood generally possesses a lower percentage of Russian-speakers compared with when Russian-speakers move, as well as compared with their previous neighbourhoods. For Russian-speakers, the percentage of other Russian-speakers in their residential surroundings decreases only for those who move to the surburbs or who move over longer distances to rural villages. By applying a novel approach of tracking the changes in the ethnic residential context of individuals for all mobility types, we were able to demonstrate that the two largest ethnolinguistic groups in Estonia tend to behave as 'parallel populations' and that residential integration in Estonia is therefore slow.
    Keywords: J15 ; J61 ; R20 ; R23 ; ddc:330 ; residential mobility ; migration ; suburbanisation ; ethnicity ; longitudinal data ; Estonia
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1436-5065
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geography , Physics
    Notes: Summary The TOGA Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Response Experiment (COARE) concentrated a variety of observational systems in the warm pool of the western equatorial Pacific for an Intensive Observation Period (IOP) November 1992 through February 1993. In this paper, aspects of the largescale variations of the tropical atmosphere and Pacific Ocean surrounding the observations of air-sea interaction in the Intensive Flux Array (IFA) during the IOP are described, with the objective of providing a context for the future analyses of these observations. The evolution of the 1991–1992 El Niño/Southern Oscillation event was unusual: Warm SST anomalies in the equatorial cold tongue region switched to colder than climatology in the last half of 1992, but waters warmer than 30°C remained displaced eastward just west of the dateline, coninuing to fuel anomalous convection there during the IOP. Fortunately, SST in the IFA remained warmer than 29°C during most of the IOP, and convective activity was observed over the IFA. The Southern Oscillation Index, which had relaxed to near zero prior to the experiment, decreased during the IOP, reflecting sea level presure changes associated with renewed westerly wind activity. In response to these westerly wind events, the warm pool migrated back into the central equatorial Pacific, leading to a reintensification of the ENSO warm SST anomalies east of the dateline.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
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    Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA)
    Publication Date: 2018-11-15
    Description: Large scale suburbanisation is a relatively recent phenomenon in East Central Europe and responsible for major socio-spatial changes in metropolitan areas. Little is known about the ethnic dimensions of this process. However, large minority population groups, mainly ethnic Russians, remained into the former member states of the Soviet Union after its dissolution in 1991. We use individual level Estonia Census data in order to investigate the ethnic dimensions of suburbanisation. The results show that ethnic minorities have a considerably lower probability to suburbanise compared to the majority population, and minorities are less likely to move to rural municipalities - the main sites of suburban change - in the suburban ring of cities. Individual characteristics that measure strong ties with the majority population and host society exert a positive effect on ethnic minority suburbanization, and on settling in rural municipalities.
    Keywords: J61 ; R21 ; R23 ; ddc:330 ; suburbanisation ; ethnicity ; Census data ; East Central Europe ; Estonia ; Suburbanisierung ; Ethnische Gruppe ; Russen ; Estland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-11-24
    Description: A hierarchy of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) prediction schemes has been developed during the Tropical Ocean-Global Atmosphere (TOGA) program which includes statistical schemes and physical models. The statistical models are, in general, based on linear statistical techniques and can be classified into models which use atmospheric (sea level pressure or surface wind) or oceanic (sea surface temperature or a measure of upper ocean heat content) quantities or a combination of oceanic and atmospheric quantities as predictors. The physical models consist of coupled ocean-atmosphere models of varying degrees of complexity, ranging from simplified coupled models of the “shallow water” type to coupled general circulation models. All models, statistical and physical, perform considerably better than the persistence forecast in predicting typical indices of ENSO on lead times of 6 to 12 months. The TOGA program can be regarded as a success from this perspective. However, despite the demonstrated predictability, little is known about ENSO predictability limits and the predictability of phenomena outside the tropical Pacific. Furthermore, the predictability of anomalous features known to be associated with ENSO (e.g., Indian monsoon and Sahel rainfall, southern African drought, and off-equatorial sea surface temperature) needs to be addressed in more detail. As well, the relative importance of different physical mechanisms (in the ocean or atmosphere) has yet to be established. A seasonal dependence in predictability is seen in many models, but the processes responsible for it are not fully understood, and its meaning is still a matter of scientific discussion. Likewise, a marked decadal variation in skill is observed, and the reasons for this are still under investigation. Finally, the different prediction models yield similar skills, although they are initialized quite differently. The reasons for these differences are also unclear.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2006-06-13
    Description: We will analyze the TOPEX/POSEIDON data using techniques developed for Geosat, although the more accurate TOPEX/POSEIDON data will enable a wider range of problems to be addressed. Our proposed investigations will have five distinct areas: (1) a description of global sea level variability; (2) tropical ocean dynamics; (3) coupled models for El Nino prediction; (4) structure of the lithosphere; and (5) global tide model improvement.
    Keywords: OCEANOGRAPHY
    Type: JPL, TOPEX(Poseidon Science Investigations Plan; p 53-54
    Format: text
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Dr. Leetmaa described current work at the U.S. National Meteorological Center (NMC) on coupled systems leading to a seasonal prediction system. He described the way in which ocean thermal data is quality controlled and used in a four dimensional data assimilation system. This consists of a statistical interpolation scheme, a primitive equation ocean general circulation model, and the atmospheric fluxes that are required to force this. This whole process generated dynamically consist thermohaline and velocity fields for the ocean. Currently routine weekly analyses are performed for the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. These analyses are used for ocean climate diagnostics and as initial conditions for coupled forecast models. Specific examples of output products were shown both in the Pacific and the Atlantic Ocean.
    Keywords: OCEANOGRAPHY
    Type: NASA. Goddard Space Flight Center, Proceedings of the Ocean Climate Data Workshop; p 85-86
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-10-02
    Description: Also published as: Journal of Marine Research, Volwne 36, 3, 1978, pp. 311-322.
    Description: From the wind stress computation of Bunker (1976) for the North Atlantic, the annual mean and seasonal vertical velocities which result from convergences in the Ekman Layers are computed. Charts of the geostrophic and total transport (geostrophic plus Ekman) are constructed using the Sverdrup relationship. Of particular interest are an intense current leaving the coast at the point where the Gulf Stream separates and a cyclonic gyre north of the Stream in this area. Good agreement exists between the computed features of the large scale circulation patterns and the observed ones. Close correspondence exists between the predicted and observed paths of the Gulf Stream; separation from the coast occurs at the maxima in the wind stress.
    Description: Prepared for the Office of Naval Research under Contract N00014-74-C-0262; NR 083-004.
    Keywords: Winds ; Ocean-atmosphere interaction
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Technical Report
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