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  • 1
    facet.materialart.12
    Chichester, [England] : Wiley
    Call number: 9781444328479 (e-book)
    Type of Medium: 12
    Pages: 1 Online-Ressource (XIII, 768 Seiten) , Illustrationen
    Edition: Second edition
    ISBN: 9781444328479 (e-book) , 978-1-4443-2847-9
    Language: English
    Note: Contents Contents Preface Acknowledgements Part 1: Making Sediment Introduction Clastic sediment as a chemical and physical breakdown product 1.1 Introduction: clastic sediments—'accidents' of weathering 1.2 Silicate minerals and chemical weathering 1.3 Solute flux: rates and mechanisms of silicate chemical weathering 1.4 Physical weathering 1.5 Soils as valves and filters for the natural landscape 1.6 Links between soil age, chemical weathering and weathered-rock removal 1.7 Provenance: siliciclastic sediment-sourcing Further reading 2 Carbonate, siliceous, iron-rich and evaporite sediments 2.1 Marine vs. freshwater chemical composition and fluxes 2.2 The calcium carbonate system in the oceans 2.3 Ooid carbonate grains 2.4 Carbonate grains from marine plants and animals 2.5 Carbonate muds, oozes and chalks 2.6 Other carbonate grains of biological origins 2.7 Organic productivity, sea-level and atmospheric controls of biogenic CaCO3 deposition rates 2.8 CaCO3 dissolution in the deep ocean and the oceanic CaCO3 compensation mechanism 2.9 The carbonate system on land 2.10 Evaporite salts and their inorganic precipitation as sediment 2.11 Silica and pelagic plankton 2.12 Iron minerals and biomineralizers 2.13 Desert varnish 2.14 Phosphates 2.15 Primary microbial-induced sediments: algal mats and stromatolites Further reading 3 Sediment grain properties 3.1 General 3.2 Grain size 3.3 Grain-size distributions 3.4 Grain shape and form 3.5 Bulk properties of grain aggregates Further reading Part 2: Moving Fluid Introduction 4 Fluid basics 4.1 Material properties of fluids 4.2 Fluid kinematics 4.3 Fluid continuity with constant density 4.4 Fluid dynamics 4.5 Energy, mechanical work and power Further reading 5 Types of fluid motion 5.1 Osborne Reynolds and flow types 5.2 The distribution of velocity in viscous flows: the boundary layer 5.3 Turbulent flows 5.4 The structure of turbulent shear flows 5.5 Shear flow instabilities, flow separation and secondary currents 5.6 Subcritical and supercritical flows: the Froude number and hydraulic jumps 5.7 Stratified flow generally 5.8 Water waves 5.9 Tidal flow—long-period waves Further reading Part 3: Transporting Sediment Introduction 6 Sediment in fluid and fluid flow—general 6.1 Fall of grains through stationary fluids 6.2 Natural flows carrying particulate material are complex 6.3 Fluids as transporting machines 6.4 Initiation of grain motion 6.5 Paths of grain motion 6.6 Categories of transported sediment 6.7 Some contrasts between wind and water flows 6.8 Cohesive sediment transport and erosion 6.9 A warning: nonequilibrium effects dominate natural sediment transport systems 6.10 Steady state, deposition or erosion: the sediment continuity equation and competence vs. capacity Further reading 7 Bedforms and sedimentary structures in flows and under waves 7.1 Trinity of interaction: turbulent flow, sediment transport and bedform development 7.2 Water-flow bedforms 7.3 Bedform phase diagrams for water flows 7.4 Water flow erosional bedforms on cohesive beds 7.5 Water wave bedforms 7.6 Combined flows: wave-current ripples and hummocky cross-stratification 7.7 Bedforms and structures formed by atmospheric flows Further reading 8 Sediment gravity flows and their deposits 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Granular flows 8.3 Debris flows 8.4 Turbidity flows 8.5 Turbidite evidence for downslope transformation from turbidity to debris flows Further reading 9 Liquefaction, fluidization and sliding sediment deformation 9.1 Liquefaction 9.2 Sedimentary structures formed by and during liquefaction 9.3 Submarine landslides, growth faults and slumps 9.4 Desiccation and synaeresis shrinkage structures Further reading Part 4: Major External Controls on Sedimentation and Sedimentary Environments Introduction 10 Major external controls on sedimentation 10.1 Climate 10.2 Global climates: a summary 10.3 Sea-level changes 10.4 Tectonics 10.5 Sediment yield, denudation rate and the sedimentary record Further reading Part 5: Continental Sedimentary Environments Introduction 11 Rivers 11.1 Introduction 11.2 River networks, hydrographs,patterns and long profiles 11.3 Channel form 11.4 Channel sediment transport processes, bedforms and internal structures 11.5 The floodplain 11.6 Channel belts, alluvial ridges and avulsion 11.7 River channel changes, adjustable variables and equilibrium 11.8 Alluvial architecture: product of complex responses 11.9 Alluvial architecture: scale, controls and time Further reading 12 Subaerial Fans: Alluvial and Colluvial 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Controls on the size (area) and gradient of fans 12.3 Physical processes on alluvial fans 12.4 Debris-flow-dominated alluvial fans 12.5 Stream-flow-dominated alluvial fans 12.6 Recognition of ancient alluvial fans and talus cones Further reading 13 Aeolian Sediments in Low-Latitude Deserts 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Aeolian system state 13.3 Physical processes and erg formation 13.4 Erg margins and interbedform areas 13.5 Erg and draa evolution and sedimentary architecture 13.6 Erg construction, stasis and destruction: climate and sea-level controls 13.7 Ancient desert facies Further reading 14 Lakes 14.1 Introduction 14.2 Lake stratification 14.3 Clastic input by rivers and the effect of turbidity currents 14.4 Wind-forced physical processes 14.5 Temperate lake chemical processes and cycles 14.6 Saline lake chemical processes and cycles 14.7 Biological processes and cycles 14.8 Modern temperate lakes and their sedimentary facies 14.9 Lakes in the East African rifts 14.10 Lake Baikal 14.11 The succession of facies as lakes evolve 14.12 Ancient lake facies Further reading 15 Ice 15.1 Introduction 15.2 Physical processes of ice flow 15.3 Glacier flow, basal lubrication and surges 15.4 Sediment transport, erosion and deposition by flowing ice 15.5 Glacigenic sediment: nomenclature and classification 15.6 Quaternary and modern glacial environments and facies 15.7 Ice-produced glacigenic erosion and depositional facies on land and in the periglacial realm 15.8 Glaciofluvial processes on land at and within the ice-front 15.9 Glacimarine environments 15.10 Glacilacustrine environments 15.11 Glacial facies in the pre-Quaternary geological record: case of Cenozoic Antarctica Further reading Part 6: Marine Sedimentary Environments Introduction 16. Estuaries 16.1 Introduction 16.2 Estuarine dynamics 16.3 Modern estuarine morphology and sedimentary environments 16.4 Estuaries and sequence stratigraphy Further reading 17. River and Fan Deltas 17.1 Introduction to river deltas 17.2 Basic physical processes and sedimentation at the river delta front 17.3 Mass movements and slope failure on the subaqueous delta 17.4 Organic deposition in river deltas 17.5 River delta case histories 17.6 River deltas and sea-level change 17.7 Ancient river delta deposits 17.8 Fan deltas Further reading 18. Linear Siliciclastic Shorelines 18.1 Introduction 18.2 Beach processes and sedimentation 18.3 Barrier-inlet-spit systems and their deposits 18.4 Tidal flats, salt marsh and chenier ridges 18.5 Ancient clastic shoreline facies Further reading 19 Siliciclastic Shelves 19.1 Introduction: shelf sinks and lowstand bypass 19.2 Shelf water dynamics 19.3 Holocene highstand shelf sediments: general 19.4 Tide-dominated, low river input, highstand shelves 19.5 Tide-dominated, high river input, highstand shelves 19.6 Weather-dominated highstand shelves Further reading 20 Calcium-carbonate-evaporite Shorelines, Shelves and Basins 20.1 Introduction: calcium carbonate 'nurseries' and their consequences 20.2 Arid carbonate tidal flats, lagoons and evaporite sabkhas 20.3 Humid carbonate tidal flats and marshes 20.4 Lagoons and bays 20.5 Tidal delta and margin-spillover carbonate tidal sands 20.6 Open-shelf carbonate ramps 20.7 Platform margin reefs and carbonate build-ups 20.8 Platform margin slopes and basins 20.9 Carbonate sediments, cycles and sea-level change 20.10 Displacement and destruction of carbonate environments: silicicl
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  • 2
    Call number: AWI G1-23-95188
    Description / Table of Contents: This book provides a sound introduction to the basic physical processes that dominate the workings of the Earth, its atmosphere and hydrosphere. It systematically introduces the physical processes involved in the Earth's systems without assuming an advanced physics or mathematical background.
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: XI, 321 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Edition: First published
    ISBN: 1405101733 , 1-4051-0173-3 , 9781405101738
    Language: English
    Note: Contents Preface Acknowledgments Chapter 1 Planet Earth and Earth systems 1.1 Comparative planetology 1.2 Unique Earth 1.3 Earth systems snapshots 1.4 Measuring Earth 1.5 Whole Earth 1.6 Subtle, interactive Earth Further reading Chapter 2 Matters of state and motion 2.1 Matters of state 2.2 Thermal matters 2.3 Quantity of matter 2.4 Motion matters: kinematics 2.5 Continuity: mass conservation of fluids Further reading Chapter 3 Forces and dynamics 3.1 Quantity of motion: momentum 3.2 Acceleration 3.3 Force, work, energy, and power 3.4 Thermal energy and mechanical work 3.5 Hydrostatic pressure 3.6 Buoyancy force 3.7 Inward acceleration 3.8 Rotation, vorticity, and Coriolis force 3.9 Viscosity 3.10 Viscous force 3.11 Turbulent force 3.12 Overall forces of fluid motion 3.13 Solid stress 3.14 Solid strain 3.15 Rheology Further reading Chapter 4 Flow, deformation, and transport 4.1 The origin of large-scale fluid flow 4.2 Fluid flow types 4.3 Fluid boundary layers 4.4 Laminar flow 4.5 Turbulent flow 4.6 Stratified flow 4.7 Particle settling 4.8 Particle transport by flows 4.9 Waves and liquids 4.10 Transport by waves 4.11 Granular gravity flow 4.12 Turbidity flows 4.13 Flow through porous and granular solids 4.14 Fractures 4.15 Faults 4.16 Solid bending, buckling, and folds 4.17 Seismic waves 4.18 Molecules in motion: kinetic theory, heat conduction, and diffusion 4.19 Heat transport by radiation 4.20 Heat transport by convection Further reading Chapter 5 Inner Earth processes and systems 5.1 Melting, magmas, and volcanoes 5.2 Plate tectonics Further reading Chapter 6 Outer Earth processes and systems 6.1 Atmosphere 6.2 Atmosphere-ocean interface 6.3 Atmosphere-land interface 6.4 Deep ocean 6.5 Shallow ocean 6.6 Ocean-land interface: coasts 6.7 Land surface Further reading Appendix Brief mathematical refresher or study guide Cookies Index
    Location: AWI Reading room
    Branch Library: AWI Library
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Sedimentology 31 (1984), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: A previous proposal (Leeder, 1977) to test the magnitude of the solid-transmitted stresses due to bedload transport failed to confirm Bagnold's theory because the applied fluid stress contribution was not corrected for sidewall drag. Once this correction is made there is a reasonable correspondence of theory and experiment.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Sedimentology 26 (1979), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: The quantitative model presented simulates the development of a two-dimensional alluvial sedimentary succession beneath a floodplain traversed by a single major river. Several inter-related effects which influence the distribution of channel-belt sand and gravel bodies within overbank fines are accounted for. These are (a) laterally variable aggradation, (b) compaction of fine sediment, (c) tectonic movement at floodplain margins, and (d) channel avulsion. Selected experiments with the model show how the interconnectedness and areal density of channel-belt deposits decrease with increasing floodplain width/channel-belt size, mean avulsion period, and channel-belt aggradation rate. Separation of stream patterns based on interconnectedness and channel deposit density is difficult. Tectonic movements do not have a significant influence upon the successions unless a preferred direction of tilting is maintained (half-graben). Then channel-belt deposits showing offlap tendencies tend to cluster adjacent to the active floodplain margin, leaving dominantly fine-grained alluvium to accumulate on the inactive side. Individual channel-belt deposits thicken during aggradation, although a self-regulating limit to such thickening is likely to operate. ‘Multistorey’features resulting from aggradation may be difficult to tell apart from those arising through superposition of distinct channel-belt deposits of avulsive origin.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Sedimentology 24 (1977), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: The cyanobacterium Rivularia haematites has calcified to form unusually large (up to 10 m high) bioherms in the Pleistocene Gulf of Corinth. Today R. haematites calcifies only in freshwater environments but these Gulf of Corinth bioherms have a brackish affinity, limited areal extent, and occur within marine deposits. Field relations and preliminary U-series dating suggest a marine isotope stage (MIS) 5e age for the bioherms. This age is compatible with published MIS 5e ages for corals in the marine sediments above the bioherms and is consistent with their current elevation based on average uplift rates. Bioherm growth during MIS 5e constrains their formation during a time of near sea-level highstand when the Gulf of Corinth was marine. Growth cavities in the bioherms are encrusted by brackish tolerant coralline algae. Field mapping of the MIS 5e highstand palaeoshoreline shows the bioherms grew in water 〈16 m deep. Mg contents of the bioherm calcites, and associated coralline algal skeletons, are both much lower than expected for marine MIS 5e carbonates. They are best explained if the calcites precipitated from brackish fluids with Mg/Ca ratios below 2, implying at least 60% input of freshwater with low Mg/Ca ratio. Sr isotopes confirm a strong input of groundwater that had partially equilibrated with Mesozoic limestones. The limited areal extent of the bioherms and their close association with karstified fault scarps suggest that they formed in shallow sea water where freshwater submarine springs delivered CaCO3 saturated water that promoted rapid calcification of cyanobacteria. Rapid calcification and strong degassing of CO2 from the spring water resulted in disequilibrium stable isotope compositions for the calcites.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Sedimentology 23 (1976), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-3091
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Intertidal mudflat channels (gullies) in the Solway Firth, Scotland possess width/depth ratios similar to meandering rivers. Most channels deeper than 1 m show cut-bank slides, but narrow, deep channels also have rotational slides on the point-bar slopes. The channels display two types of point-bar. The first, associated with gently curved meanders, is sigmoidal in profile. The second, associated with tight meander bends, possesses a pronounced lower platform. The onset of flow separation in meander bends, a phenomenon which enhances cut-bank erosion and point-bar deposition, is a direct function of meander-bend tightness and Froude number. The effects of flow separation are greatest on tight meander bends at times of high velocity during late spring ebb and also during rainfall run-off at low tide. These events appear to be responsible for the growth of the point-bar platforms. A model, predicting the type of point-bar development to be expected in different channel meanders, is used to reconstruct the sedimentary history of active and fossil point-bars.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 1977-01-01
    Print ISSN: 0197-9337
    Electronic ISSN: 1096-9837
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Wiley on behalf of British Society for Geomorphology.
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 1998-05-01
    Print ISSN: 0037-0738
    Electronic ISSN: 1879-0968
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 1996-05-01
    Print ISSN: 0037-0738
    Electronic ISSN: 1879-0968
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Elsevier
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