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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-5176
    Keywords: fatty acids ; Porphyridium cruentum ; salinity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Porphyridium cruentum Näg. (clone 161) was found to grow best in medium containing between 0.45 M and 0.8 M NaCl. From studies done on growing cultures, the palmitic acid content of the cells decreased with increasing NaCl concentration of the medium. Conversely, when the culture was transferred from a 0.8 M NaCl medium to 0.2 M NaCl, the amount of palmitic acid in thePorphyridium cells increased with time of incubation and it contributed up to 64.5% of the total fatty acid content. There appears to be a negative correlation between the cellular content of palmitic acid and the growth lag. The oleic acid content varied only marginally with increasing NaCl concentration. The poly-unsaturated acid content (linolenic and arachidonic acids) decreased initially and then increased with NaCl concentration up to and beyond ca. 0.8 M NaCl respectively. At 1.5 M NaCl, the poly-unsaturated fatty acids amounted to 78.2% of the total fatty acids in the cell. For stationary phaseP. cruentum cultures, a similar relationship existed between fatty acids and NaCl concentration. However, palmitic acid was accumulated up to three-fold more when compared to the exponential culture grown in low salinity. In addition stearic acid was also found in significant quantities.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-5176
    Keywords: Astaxanthin ; Chlorococcum sp. ; secondary carotenoids
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The effects of temperature, pH and oxygen level onsecondary carotenoids (SC) accumulation in Chlorococcum sp. were investigated. The optimaltemperature, pH and oxygen level for the yields ofsecondary carotenoids and astaxanthin were35 °C, pH 8 and 10% (v/v), respectively. Whilethe ratio (R) of products containing hydroxyl group(s) to those containing keto group (s) increased withthe increase of temperature and pH, R value decreasedwith the level of oxygen. These results indicate thathigher temperature and pH favor the introduction ofhydroxyl group to the corresponding substrates,however, under high oxygen level keto group wasrelatively easy to be added compared to the additionof hydroxyl.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-5176
    Keywords: Trentepohlia odorata ; Dunaliella bardawil ; light intensity ; nitrogen ; growth ; carotenogenesis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract AxenicTrentepohlia odorata was cultured at three different NH4Cl levels (3.5 × 10−2, 3.5 × 10−3, 3.5 × 10−4 M) and three different light intensities (48, 76, 122 µmol m−2 s−1). Chloride had no effect on growth over this range of concentration. High light intensity and high NH4Cl concentration enhanced the specific growth rate. The carotenoid content increased under a combination of high light intensity and low N concentration. WhenD. bardawil was exposed to the same combination of growth conditions, there was an increase in its carotenoid content. The light saturation and the light inhibition constants (K s andK i, respectively) for growth, and the saturation constant (K m) for NH4Cl were determined. TheK s andK i values were higher inT. odorata (66.7 and〉 122 σmol m−2 s−1, respectively) than inD. bardawil (5.1 and 14.7 µmol m−2 s−1, respectively). TheK m value determined at 122 µmol m−2 s−1, however, was lower inT. odorata (0.048 µM) than inD. bardawil (0.062 µM).
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-5176
    Keywords: changing irradiance ; Chlorella ; outdoor culture ; enclosed tubular photobioreactor ; carbon ; nitrogen output
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Chlorella zofingiensis was grown in semi-continuous culture in an outdoor enclosed tubular photobioreactor. At the quasi-steady state, the response of the culture to changes in photosynthetically active radiance (PAR) was studied by following closely the dissolved O2 concentration,biomass concentration and the carbohydrate and protein content of the biomass. Generally, O2 production and the output of carbon and nitrogen of the biomass showed a linear correlation with incident PAR, suggesting that the cultures were light-limited. Photoinhibition was not observed in high light adapted cultures (on a sunny day), but was observed in shade adapted cultures(cloudy days) when there was a sudden four-fold increase in PAR. The output rate of biomass nitrogen observed on sunny days was, however, lower than that measured on cloudy days. On sunny days, a rapid increase in the C/N ratio of the biomass was seen. We attribute the increase in C/N ratio on sunny days to a slower response of protein synthesis to big increases in PAR, compared to carbohydrate synthesis. The possible influence of this C and N response pattern on the productivity of outdoor algal cultures is discussed.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of applied phycology 9 (1997), S. 403-411 
    ISSN: 1573-5176
    Keywords: Asia-Pacific ; microalgae ; producers ; locations ; productionarea ; annual production ; products
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract There are around 110 commercial producers of microalgae in the Asia-Pacific region, with annual production capacity ranging from 3 to 500 T. About nine-tenth of the algal cultivation plants are located in Asia. The commercially cultivated microalgae include Chlorella, Spirulina, Dunaliella, Nannochloris, Nitzschia, Crypthecodinium, Schizochytrium, Tetraselmis, Skeletonema, Isochrysisand Chaetoceros. Most of the commercially produced algal biomass is being marketed as health food, in the forms of tablets and capsules. Algae and their extract are also included in noodles, wine, beverages, breakfast cereals and cosmetics.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-5176
    Keywords: mixotrophic ; photosynthetic ; Chlorella ; outdoor culture ; enclosed photoreactor
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Chlorella sorokiniana was cultured in heterotrophic or mixotrophic mode in outdoor enclosed tubular photobioreactor. The culture temperature was maintained at 32–35 °C. At night, theChlorella culture grew heterotrophically, and 0.1 M glucose was completely consumed. The biomass growth yield of glucose was 0.35 ± 0.001 g-biomass g-glucose−1. During the day, the algal culture grew mixotrophically and the biomass growth yield was 0.49 g-biomass g-glucose−1 in low density culture (initial biomass concentration, Xo = 2 g l−1), 0.56 g-biomass g-glucose−1 in medium density culture (Xo = 4 g l−1) and 0.46 g-biomass g-glucose−1 in high density culture (Xo = 7 g l−1). The daily area productivity of the culture, with Xo = 4 g l−1 corresponded to 127 g-biomass m−2 d−1 during the day and 79 g-biomass m−2 d−1 during the night. In all the cultures, the dissolved O2 concentration increased in the morning, reached the maximum value at noon, and then decreased in the afternoon. The dissolved CO2 concentration remained at 3 mBar in the morning and increased in the afternoon. Glycolate was not found to accumulate in culture medium.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of applied phycology 9 (1997), S. 471-475 
    ISSN: 1573-5176
    Keywords: Chlorella zofingiensis ; thermotolerance ; heat shock(HS) ; heat shock protein (HSP)
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Thermotolerance in cultures of Chlorella zofingiensis was induced by heat shock treatment at supraoptimal temperatures (40and 45 °C for 30 min). Thermotolerance was assayed by two methods: the survival of the cells at 70 °C and the growth of diluted cultures at 35 and 45 °C. A culture without heat shock treatment was unable to grow at 45 °C. According to eletrophoretic analyses, the synthesis of proteins of 95, 73, 60, 43 and 27 kDa was induced by heat shock treatment. The large molecular weight proteins (95, 73, 60 and43 kDa) were present in non-heat treated cells, but the heat shock treatment increased their quantity in cells. The synthesis of a low molecular weight protein (27 kDa) was induced by heat shock treatment. The induced thermotolerance could be inhibited by the presence of an 80S ribosomal translation inhibitor, cycloheximide(CHI). The first 12 amino acid residues from the N-terminus of the27 kDa heat shock induced protein are Val-Glu-Trp-Try-Gly-Pro-Asn-Arg-Ala-Lys-Phe-Leu.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-5176
    Keywords: dissolved CO2 partial pressure ; biomass output rate ; bioenergetic ; Chlorella pyrenoidosa
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract When low-CO2 grown Chlorella pyrenoidosa (YSK strain) cells were exposed to high CO2 partial pressures (pCO2), the specific growth rate (μ) declined exponentially reaching a steady state value in about 20 h. A short interruption (up to 1 h) by temporarily lowering the pCO2 did not prevent the continuous decline in μ when high pCO2 was restored. In chemostate studies, light-limited cultures were supplied with 2 to 90 kPa of CO2. The steady state biomass production rate and bioenergetic growth yield were related inversely to pCO2 and the average energy uptake rate. The maintenance energy coefficient was, however, independent of dissolved pCO2 in the pCO2 range studied.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-5176
    Keywords: photobioreactor ; microalgae ; design performance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Ab α-shape tubular photobioreactor was designed and constructed based on knowledge of algal growth physiology using sunlight. The algal culture is lifted 5 m by air to a receiver tank. From the receiver tank, the culture flows down parallel polyvinyl-chloride tubes of 25 m length and 2.5 cm internal diameter, placed at an angle of 25 ° with the horizontal to reach another set of air riser tubes. Again the culture is lifted 5 m to another receiver tank, then flows down parallel tubes connected to the base of the first set of riser tubes. Thus, the bioreactor system looks like the symbol α. As there is no change in the direction of the liquid flow, high liquid flow rate and Reynolds Number can be achieved at relatively low air flow rate in the riser tubes. Due to the high area-volume ratio of the bioreactor, and equable photosynthetically available radiance and culture temperature, biomass density of exceeding 10 g dry weight L-1 and daily output rate of 72 g dry weight m-2 land d-1 were achieved.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-5176
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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