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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-09-09
    Description: Using inorganic carbon measurements from an international survey effort in the 1990s and a tracer-based separation technique, we estimate a global oceanic anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) sink for the period from 1800 to 1994 of 118 ± 19 petagrams of carbon. The oceanic sink accounts for ∼48% of the total fossil-fuel and cement-manufacturing emissions, implying that the terrestrial biosphere was a net source of CO2 to the atmosphere of about 39 ± 28 petagrams of carbon for this period. The current fraction of total anthropogenic CO2 emissions stored in the ocean appears to be about one-third of the long-term potential.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2012-07-06
    Description: Photosynthesis by phytoplankton in sunlit surface waters transforms inorganic carbon and nutrients into organic matter, a portion of which is subsequently transported vertically through the water column by the process known as the biological carbon pump (BCP). The BCP sustains the steep vertical gradient in total dissolved carbon, thereby contributing to net carbon sequestration. Any changes in the vertical transportation of the organic matter as a result of future climate variations will directly affect surface ocean carbon dioxide (CO 2) concentrations, and subsequently influence oceanic uptake of atmospheric CO 2 and climate. Here we present results of experiments designed to investigate the potential effects of ocean acidification and warming on the BCP. These perturbation experiments were carried out in enclosures (3,000 L volume) in a controlled mesocosm facility that mimicked future pCO 2 (∼900 ppmv) and temperature (3°C higher than ambient) conditions. The elevated CO 2 and temperature treatments disproportionately enhanced the ratio of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) production to particulate organic carbon (POC) production, whereas the total organic carbon (TOC) production remained relatively constant under all conditions tested. A greater partitioning of organic carbon into the DOC pool indicated a shift in the organic carbon flow from the particulate to dissolved forms, which may affect the major pathways involved in organic carbon export and sequestration under future ocean conditions.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 3
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    Royal Society of Chemistry
    In:  Energy & Environmental Science, 4 (4). pp. 1133-1146.
    Publication Date: 2019-01-22
    Description: We review data on the absorption of anthropogenic CO2 by Northern Hemisphere marginal seas (Arctic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, Sea of Okhotsk, and East/Japan Sea) and its transport to adjacent major basins, and consider the susceptibility to recent climatic change of key factors that influence CO2 uptake by these marginal seas. Dynamic overturning circulation is a common feature of these seas, and this effectively absorbs anthropogenic CO2 and transports it from the surface to the interior of the basins. Amongst these seas only the East/Japan Sea has no outflow of intermediate and deep water (containing anthropogenic CO2) to an adjacent major basin; the others are known to be significant sources of intermediate and deep water to the open ocean. Consequently, only the East/Japan Sea retains all the anthropogenic CO2 absorbed during the anthropocene. Investigations of the properties of the water column in these seas have revealed a consistent trend of waning water column ventilation over time, probably because of changes in local atmospheric forcing. This weakening ventilation has resulted in a decrease in transport of anthropogenic CO2 from the surface to the interior of the basins, and to the adjacent open ocean. Ongoing measurements of anthropogenic CO2, other gases and hydrographic parameters in these key marginal seas will provide information on changes in global oceanic CO2 uptake associated with the predicted increasing atmospheric CO2 and future global climate change. We also review the roles of other marginal seas with no active overturning circulation systems in absorbing and storing anthropogenic CO2. The absence of overturning circulation enables anthropogenic CO2 to penetrate only into shallow depths, resulting in less accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 in these basins. As a consequence of their proximity to populated continents, these marginal seas are particularly vulnerable to human-induced perturbations. Maintaining observation programs will make it possible to assess the effects of human-induced changes on the capacity of these seas to uptake and store anthropogenic CO2.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: The temporal dynamics of the concentrations of nitrate (N), phosphate (P), and the N:P ratio in the upper water column (200-600m) of the Mediterranean (MED) Sea were investigated using observational data (~123,100 data points) collected between 1985 and 2014. The studied variables were found to evolve similarly in the western and eastern MED Sea. In both basins, the N concentration increased during the first part of the observational period (1985-1998), and the temporal trend of N was broadly consistent with the history of riverine and atmospheric nitrogen input from populated areas in Europe, with a lag period of 20years. In subsequent years, the N concentration was high and relatively constant between 1998 and 2005, after which N decreased gradually, although the decreasing trend was indistinct in the western basin. In particular, the trend of constant then declining N after 1998 is consistent with the history of pollutant nitrogen emissions from the European continent, allowing a 20 year lag following the introduction of regulation of pollutant nitrogen in the 1970s. The three-phase temporal transition in P in both basins was more consistent with the riverine phosphorus input, with a lag period of 20years. Our analysis indicates that the recent dynamics of N and P in the upper MED Sea has been sensitive to the dynamics of anthropogenic nitrogen and phosphorus input from atmospheric deposition and rivers
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 5
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Kim, Keunyong; Kim, Kwang Young; Kim, Ju Hyoung; Kang, Eun Ju; Jeong, Hae Jin; Lee, Kitack (2013): Synergistic effects of elevated carbon dioxide and sodium hypochlorite on survival and impairment of three phytoplankton species. ALGAE, 28(2), 173-183, https://doi.org/10.4490/algae.2013.28.2.173
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is widely used to disinfect seawater in power plant cooling systems in order to reduce biofouling, and in ballast water treatment systems to prevent transport of exotic marine species. While the toxicity of NaOCl is expected to increase by ongoing ocean acidification, and many experimental studies have shown how algal calcification, photosynthesis and growth respond to ocean acidification, no studies have investigated the relationship between NaOCl toxicity and increased CO2. Therefore, we investigated whether the impacts of NaOCl on survival, chlorophyll a (Chl-a), and effective quantum yield in three marine phytoplankton belonging to different taxonomic classes are increased under high CO2 levels. Our results show that all biological parameters of the three species decreased under increasing NaOCl concentration, but increasing CO2 concentration alone (from 450 to 715 µatm) had no effect on any of these parameters in the organisms. However, due to the synergistic effects between NaOCl and CO2, the survival and Chl-a content in two of the species, Thalassiosira eccentrica and Heterosigma akashiwo, were significantly reduced under high CO2 when NaOCl was also elevated. The results show that combined exposure to high CO2 and NaOCl results in increasing toxicity of NaOCl in some marine phytoplankton. Consequently, greater caution with use of NaOCl will be required, as its use is widespread in coastal waters.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 44868 data points
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  • 6
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Park, K T; Lee, Kitack; Shin, Kyoungsoon; Yang, Eun Jin; Hyun, Bonggil; Kim, Ja-Myung; Noh, Jae Hoon; Kim, Miok; Kong, Bokyung; Choi, Dong Han; Choi, Su-Jin; Jang, Pung-Guk; Jeong, Hae Jin (2014): Direct Linkage between Dimethyl Sulfide Production and Microzooplankton Grazing, Resulting from Prey Composition Change under High Partial Pressure of Carbon Dioxide Conditions. Environmental Science & Technology, 48(9), 4750-4756, https://doi.org/10.1021/es403351h
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: Oceanic dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is the enzymatic cleavage product of the algal metabolite dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and is the most abundant form of sulfur released into the atmosphere. To investigate the effects of two emerging environmental threats (ocean acidification and warming) on marine DMS production, we performed a large-scale perturbation experiment in a coastal environment. At both ambient temperature and 2 °C warmer, an increase in partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) in seawater (160-830 ppmv pCO2) favored the growth of large diatoms, which outcompeted other phytoplankton species in a natural phytoplankton assemblage and reduced the growth rate of smaller, DMSP-rich phototrophic dinoflagellates. This decreased the grazing rate of heterotrophic dinoflagellates (ubiquitous micrograzers), resulting in reduced DMS production via grazing activity. Both the magnitude and sign of the effect of pCO2 on possible future oceanic DMS production were strongly linked to pCO2-induced alterations to the phytoplankton community and the cellular DMSP content of the dominant species and its association with micrograzers.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 29214 data points
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  • 7
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Kim, Ju Hyoung; Kim, Kwang Young; Kang, Eun Ju; Lee, Kitack; Kim, Ja-Myung; Park, K T; Shin, Kyoungsoon; Hyun, B; Jeong, Hae Jin (2013): Enhancement of photosynthetic carbon assimilation efficiency by phytoplankton in the future coastal ocean. Biogeosciences, 10(11), 7525-7535, https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-10-7525-2013
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: A mesocosm experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of future climate conditions on photosynthesis and productivity of coastal phytoplankton. Natural phytoplankton assemblages were incubated in field mesocosms under the ambient condition (present condition: ca. 400 ppmv CO2 and ambient temp.), and two future climate conditions (acidification condition: ca. 900 ppmv CO2 and ambient temp.; greenhouse condition: ca. 900 ppmv CO2 and 3 °C warmer than ambient). Photosynthetic parameters of steady-state light responses curves (LCs; measured by PAM fluorometer) and photosynthesis-irradiance curves (P-I curves; estimated by in situ incorporation of 14C) were compared to three conditions during the experiment period. Under acidification, electron transport efficiency (alpha LC) and photosynthetic 14C assimilation efficiency (alpha) were 10% higher than those of the present condition, but maximum rates of relative electron transport (rETRm,LC) and photosynthetic 14C assimilation (PBmax) were lower than the present condition by about 19% and 7%, respectively. In addition, rETRm,LC and alpha LC were not significantly different between and greenhouse conditions, but PBmax and alpha of greenhouse conditions were higher than those of the present condition by about 9% and 30%, respectively. In particular, the greenhouse condition has drastically higher PBmax and alpha than the present condition more than 60% during the post-bloom period. According to these results, two future ocean conditions have major positive effects on the photosynthesis in terms of energy utilization efficiency for organic carbon fixation through the inorganic carbon assimilation. Despite phytoplankton taking an advantage on photosynthesis, primary production of phytoplankton was not stimulated by future conditions. In particular, biomass of phytoplankton was depressed under both acidification and greenhouse conditions after the the pre-bloom period, and more research is required to suggest that some factors such as grazing activity could be important for regulating phytoplankton bloom in the future ocean.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 45219 data points
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-01-18
    Description: The connection between marine biogenic dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and the formation of aerosol particles in the Arctic atmosphere was evaluated by analyzing atmospheric DMS mixing ratios, aerosol particle size distributions and aerosol chemical composition data that were concurrently collected at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard (78.5° N, 11.8° E) during April and May 2015. Measurements of aerosol sulfur (S) compounds showed distinct patterns during periods of Arctic haze (April) and phytoplankton blooms (May). Specifically, during the phytoplankton bloom period the contribution of DMS-derived SO42− to the total aerosol SO42− increased by 7-fold compared with that during the proceeding Arctic haze period, accounting for up to 70 % of fine SO42− particles (
    Electronic ISSN: 1680-7375
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-06-01
    Print ISSN: 1352-2310
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-2844
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2006-01-01
    Print ISSN: 0148-0227
    Electronic ISSN: 2156-2202
    Topics: Geosciences
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