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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1009
    Keywords: Wetland ; Restoration ; Dredging ; Spoil ; Louisiana
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract The rationale and outline of an implementation plan for restoring coastal wetlands in Louisiana is presented. The rationale for the plan is based on reversing the consequences of documented cause-and-effect relationships between wetland loss and hydrologic change. The main feature is to modify the extensive interlocking network of dredged spoil deposits, or spoil banks, by reestablishing a more natural water flow at moderate flow velocity (〈5 cm/sec). Guidelines for site selection from thousands of potential sites are proposed. Examples of suitable sites are given for intermediate marshes. These sites exhibit rapid deterioration following partial or complete hydrologic impoundment, implying a strong hydrologic, rather than sedimentological, cause of wetland deterioration. We used an exploratory hydrologic model to guide determination of the amount of spoil bank to be removed. The results from an economic model indicated a very effective cost-benefit ratio. Both models and practical experience with other types of restoration plans, in Louisiana and elsewhere, exhibit an economy of scale, wherein larger projects are more cost effective than smaller projects. However, in contrast to these other projects, spoil bank management may be 100 to 1000 times more cost effective and useful in wetland tracts 〈1000 ha in size. Modest spoil bank management at numerous small wetland sites appears to offer substantial positive attributes compared to alternative and more intensive management at a few larger wetland sites.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1433-3015
    Keywords: Keywords: Acoustic wave; Fuzzy rule based expert system; Laser cleaning; Prediction of surface damage; Process control algorithm
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: During laser cleaning, surface damage on the substrate could easily occur by overexposure to a laser pulse of high fluence. Successful cleaning without surface damage can be achieved by skilled operators with long experience and good technique. This paper presents a fuzzy rule based expert system to predict surface damage during laser cleaning in the same way as a human expert. In this work, a fuzzy rule base was used to embed the acoustic information, which gives an indication of both progress in cleaning and the result. This is achieved by a wide-band microphone. An inference process was conducted to predict whether and how much surface damage would be induced on the substrate. Tests of the performance of the fuzzy system showed that the prediction of surface damage is well correlated with the actual results, independent of initial surface conditions. Based on the prediction of surface damage, the process control algorithm of laser cleaning has been developed.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0630
    Keywords: PACS: 42.62; 85.60.J; 52.75.R
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract. Sapphire wafer is found to be scribed and cut freely by plasma from a metal surface on which a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser beam is focused through the wafer. The wafer is scribed enough to be cut using a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with the average power of 5 W at atmospheric environment without a vacuum chamber. This method is successfully applied to split each device from a blue LED wafer including about 10000 blue LED devices grown on a sapphire wafer.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0886
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract. Using polytene chromosomes of salivary gland cells of Chironomus tentans, phosphorylation state-sensitive antibodies and the transcription and protein kinase inhibitor 5,6-dichloro-1-β-d-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB), we have visualized the chromosomal distribution of RNA polymerase II (pol II) with hypophosphorylated (pol IIA) and hyperphosphorylated (pol II0) carboxyl-terminal repeat domain (CTD). DRB blocks labeling of the CTD with 32Pi within minutes of its addition, and nuclear pol II0 is gradually converted to IIA; this conversion parallels the reduction in transcription of protein-coding genes. DRB also alters the chromosomal distribution of II0: there is a time-dependent clearance from chromosomes of phosphoCTD (PCTD) after addition of DRB, which coincides in time with the completion and release of preinitiated transcripts. Furthermore, the staining of smaller transcription units is abolished before that of larger ones. The staining pattern of chromosomes with anti-CTD antibodies is not detectably influenced by the DRB treatment, indicating that hypophosphorylated pol IIA is unaffected by the transcription inhibitor. Microinjection of synthetic heptapeptide repeats, anti-CTD and anti-PCTD antibodies into salivary gland nuclei hampered the transcription of BR2 genes, indicating the requirement for CTD and PCTD in transcription in living cells. The results demonstrate that in vivo the protein kinase effector DRB shows parallel effects on an early step in gene transcription and the process of pol II hyperphosphorylation. Our observations are consistent with the proposal that the initiation of productive RNA synthesis is CTD-phosphorylation dependent and also with the idea that the gradual dephosphorylation of transcribing pol II0 is coupled to the completion of nascent pol II gene transcripts.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0886
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Using polytene chromosomes of salivary gland cells of Chironomus tentans, phosphorylation state-sensitive antibodies and the transcription and protein kinase inhibitor 5,6-dichloro-1-β-d-ribofuranosyl-benzimidazole (DRB), we have visualized the chromosomal distribution of RNA polymerase II (pol II) with hypophosphorylated (pol IIA) and hyperphosphorylated (pol IIO) carboxyl-terminal repeat domain (CTD). DRB blocks labeling of the CTD with 32Pi within minutes of its addition, and nuclear pol IIO is gradually converted to IIA; this conversion parallels the reduction in transcription of protein-coding genes. DRB also alters the chromosomal distribution of IIO: there is a time-dependent clearance from chromosomes of phosphoCTD (PCTD) after addition of DRB, which coincides in time with the completion and release of preinitiated transcripts. Furthermore, the staining of smaller transcription units is abolished before that of larger ones. The staining pattern of chromosomes with anti-CTD antibodies is not detectably influenced by the DRB treatment, indicating that hypophosphorylated pol IIA is unaffected by the transcription inhibitor. Microinjection of synthetic heptapeptide repeats, anti-CTD and anti-PCTD antibodies into salivary gland nuclei hampered the transcription of BR2 genes, indicating the requirement for CTD and PCTD in transcription in living cells. The results demonstrate that in vivo the protein kinase effector DRB shows parallel effects on an early step in gene transcription and the process of pol II hyperphosphorylation. Our observations are consistent with the proposal that the initiation of productive RNA synthesis is CTD-phosphorylation dependent and also with the idea that the gradual dephosphorylation of transcribing pol IIO is coupled to the completion of nascent pol II gene transcripts.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cellular and molecular life sciences 29 (1973), S. 1496-1497 
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Nachweis, dass rezeptive Kortexfelder der Kaninchen (70% der visuellen Zellen) auf Lichtstimuli bzw. Schärfe-Unschärfe-Änderung mit Amplitudenabfall reagieren.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Keywords: Guinea pig brain ; cardiac output ; morphine ; cerebral blood flow
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Both acute and chronic administration of morphine resulted in an increase in the percent cardiac output received by brain. However, various brain regions were affected differently by the drug treatments. The greatest increases in percent cardiac output received after chronic administration of morphine occurred in pons and cerebellum, while the greatest increases after acute administration occurred in cortex and midbrain. The changes found are in contrast with earlier studies which suggest that morphine has no effect on cerebral blood flow.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cellular and molecular life sciences 28 (1972), S. 1053-1054 
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Bestimmung der Auswirkung von artefiziellen Refraktionsanomalien auf die Aktivität von Neuren in primären Sehzentren.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1600-5775
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: A data-collection technique for quick extended X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (QEXAFS) was developed with a new `broomstick' double-crystal monochromator, which has been installed for X-ray absorption fine-structure (XAFS) applications at the Pohang Light Source. The monochromator operates in a fixed-exit scan mode as the Bragg angle is varied from 8 to 80°, corresponding to 2–14 keV, using an Si(111) crystal. The monochromator scan capability was investigated by analysing EXAFS data quality from step-scan and from continuous rotation of the Bragg crystal reflection angle. In our fast continuous-scan design, the electronic pulsing speed of the step motor is adjustable to avoid the monochromatic beam instability caused by serious mechanical resonance. The feasibility of QEXAFS scanning is demonstrated by a typical EXAFS scan (e.g. 1 keV range) being taken within 1 min.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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