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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2003. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research 108, C11 (2003): 8000, doi:10.1029/2003JC002165.
    Description: Support for the guest editors was provided by NSF grant OCE 02-27679 (RB), the Bedford Institute of Oceanography (PS), and NSF grant OCE 01-07946 (CL).
    Keywords: Physical processes on Georges Bank ; Gulf of Maine ; Scotian Shelf
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2010. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research 115 (2010): C08008, doi:10.1029/2009JC005706.
    Description: High-resolution hydrographic measurements collected along the southern edge of Georges Bank during March and June–July 1997 focused on characterizing processes that drive fluxes of material between the slope and bank. Wintertime sampling characterized changes driven by a strong storm. A Scotian Shelf crossover event produced a ribbon of anomalously fresh water along the bank's southern flank that was diluted during the storm. Comparison of prestorm and poststorm sections shows that over the bank changes in heat and salt inventories are consistent with those expected solely from local surface fluxes. In deeper waters, advective effects, likely associated with frontal motion and eddies, are clearly important. Summertime surveys resolve the development of a massive intrusion of Gulf Stream-like waters onto the bank. East of the intrusion, a thin extrusion of bank water is drawn outward by the developing ring, exporting fresher water at a rate of about 7 × 104 m3/s. A large-amplitude Gulf Stream meander appears to initiate the extrusion, but it quickly evolves, near the bank edge, into a warm core ring. Ring water intrudes to approximately the 80 m isobath, 40 km inshore from the bank edge. The intrusion process seems analogous to the development of Gulf Stream shingles (a hydrodynamic instability) in the South Atlantic Bight. It appears that, once the intruded water is established on the bank, it remains there and dissipates in place. Although the intrusion is an extremely dramatic event, it is probably not actually a major contributor to shelf edge exchanges over a seasonal time scale.
    Description: This work was supported by the National Science Foundation as part of the U.S. Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamics (GLOBEC) program through grant OCE-9632349. Lee received additional support from OCE-0628379.
    Keywords: Georges Bank ; Shelf-slope exchange ; Gulf Stream Ring intrusions
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © The Oceanography Society, 2015. This article is posted here by permission of The Oceanography Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Oceanography 28, no. 1 (2015): 56-65, doi:10.5670/oceanog.2015.06.
    Description: One part of the Salinity Processes in the Upper-ocean Regional Study (SPURS) field campaign focused on understanding the physical processes affecting the evolution of upper-ocean salinity in the region of climatological maximum sea surface salinity in the subtropical North Atlantic (SPURS-1). An upper-ocean salinity budget provides a useful framework for increasing this understanding. The SPURS-1 program included a central heavily instrumented mooring for making accurate measurements of air-sea surface fluxes, as well as other moorings, Argo floats, and gliders that together formed a dense observational array. Data from this array are used to estimate terms in the upper-ocean salinity and heat budgets during the SPURS-1 campaign, with a focus on the first several months (October 2012 to February 2013) when the surface mixed layer was becoming deeper, fresher, and cooler. Specifically, we examine the salinity and temperature balances for an upper-ocean mixed layer, defined as the layer where the density is within 0.4 kg m–3 of its surface value. The gross features of the evolution of upper-ocean salinity and temperature during this fall/winter season are explained by a combination of evaporation and precipitation at the sea surface, horizontal transport of heat and salt by mixed-layer currents, and vertical entrainment of fresher, cooler fluid into the layer as it deepened. While all of these processes were important in the observed seasonal (fall) freshening at this location in the salinity-maximum region, the variability of salinity on monthly-to-intraseasonal time scales resulted primarily from horizontal advection.
    Description: J.T. Farrar, A.J. Plueddemann, J.B. Edson, and the deployment of the central mooring were supported by NASA grant NNX11AE84G. L. Rainville, C. Lee, C. Eriksen, and the Seaglider program were supported by NASA grant NNX11AE78G. R. Schmitt was supported by NSF grant OCE-1129646. B. Hodges and D. Fratantoni were supported by NASA grant NNX11AE82G. The Prawler moorings were funded by PMEL. The data analysis was also supported by NASA grant NNX14AH38G.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-10-06
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2015. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 96 (2015): 1257–1279, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00015.1.
    Description: Lateral stirring is a basic oceanographic phenomenon affecting the distribution of physical, chemical, and biological fields. Eddy stirring at scales on the order of 100 km (the mesoscale) is fairly well understood and explicitly represented in modern eddy-resolving numerical models of global ocean circulation. The same cannot be said for smaller-scale stirring processes. Here, the authors describe a major oceanographic field experiment aimed at observing and understanding the processes responsible for stirring at scales of 0.1–10 km. Stirring processes of varying intensity were studied in the Sargasso Sea eddy field approximately 250 km southeast of Cape Hatteras. Lateral variability of water-mass properties, the distribution of microscale turbulence, and the evolution of several patches of inert dye were studied with an array of shipboard, autonomous, and airborne instruments. Observations were made at two sites, characterized by weak and moderate background mesoscale straining, to contrast different regimes of lateral stirring. Analyses to date suggest that, in both cases, the lateral dispersion of natural and deliberately released tracers was O(1) m2 s–1 as found elsewhere, which is faster than might be expected from traditional shear dispersion by persistent mesoscale flow and linear internal waves. These findings point to the possible importance of kilometer-scale stirring by submesoscale eddies and nonlinear internal-wave processes or the need to modify the traditional shear-dispersion paradigm to include higher-order effects. A unique aspect of the Scalable Lateral Mixing and Coherent Turbulence (LatMix) field experiment is the combination of direct measurements of dye dispersion with the concurrent multiscale hydrographic and turbulence observations, enabling evaluation of the underlying mechanisms responsible for the observed dispersion at a new level.
    Description: The bulk of this work was funded under the Scalable Lateral Mixing and Coherent Turbulence Departmental Research Initiative and the Physical Oceanography Program. The dye experiments were supported jointly by the Office of Naval Research and the National Science Foundation Physical Oceanography Program (Grants OCE-0751653 and OCE-0751734).
    Description: 2016-02-01
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2015. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geophysical Research Letters 42 (2015): 8098–8105, doi:10.1002/2015GL065814.
    Description: The influence and fate of westward propagating eddies that impinge on the Kuroshio were observed with pressure sensor-equipped inverted echo sounders (PIESs) deployed east of Taiwan and northeast of Luzon. Zero lag correlations between PIES-measured acoustic travel times and satellite-measured sea surface height anomalies (SSHa), which are normally negative, have lower magnitude toward the west, suggesting the eddy-influence is weakened across the Kuroshio. The observational data reveal that impinging eddies lead to seesaw-like SSHa and pycnocline depth changes across the Kuroshio east of Taiwan, whereas analogous responses are not found in the Kuroshio northeast of Luzon. Anticyclones intensify sea surface and pycnocline slopes across the Kuroshio, while cyclones weaken these slopes, particularly east of Taiwan. During the 6 month period of overlap between the two PIES arrays, only one anticyclone affected the pycnocline depth first at the array northeast of Luzon and 21 days later in the downstream Kuroshio east of Taiwan.
    Description: Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of Taiwan Grant Number: NSC-101-2611-M-002-018-MY3; US Office of Naval Research (ONR) Grant Number: N00014-12-1-0445; MA Grant Number: N00014-15-1-2593; ONR Grant Numbers: N00014-10-1-0397, N00014-10-1-0308, N00014-10-1-0468
    Description: 2016-03-08
    Keywords: Kuroshio ; Mesoscale eddy ; Eddy-Kuroshio interaction ; Pressure sensor-equipped inverted echo sounder
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-10-06
    Description: Author Posting. © The Oceanography Society, 2017. This article is posted here by permission of The Oceanography Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Oceanography 30, no. 2 (2017): 15–17, doi:10.5670/oceanog.2017.211.
    Description: Oceanography relies heavily on observations to fuel new ideas and drive advances, creating a strong coupling between the science and the technological developments that enable new measurements. Novel observations, such as those that resolve new properties or scales, often lead to advances in understanding. Physical, biological, and chemical processes unfold over a broad range of scales—seconds to decades and millimeters to ocean basins—with critical interactions between scales. Observational studies work within a tradespace that balances spatial and temporal resolution, scope, and resource constraints. New platforms and sensors, along with the novel observational approaches they enable, address this challenge by providing access to an expanding range of temporal and spatial scales.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-10-06
    Description: Author Posting. © The Oceanography Society, 2017. This article is posted here by permission of The Oceanography Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Oceanography 30, no. 2 (2017): 69–73, doi:10.5670/oceanog.2017.223.
    Description: Autonomous and Lagrangian platforms and sensors (ALPS) have revolutionized the way the subsurface ocean is observed. The synergy between ALPS-based observations and coupled ocean-sea ice state and parameter estimation as practiced in the Arctic Subpolar gyre sTate Estimate (ASTE) project is illustrated through several examples. In the western Arctic, Ice-Tethered Profilers have been providing important hydrographic constraints of the water column down to 800 m depth since 2004. ASTE takes advantage of these detailed constraints to infer vertical profiles of diapycnal mixing rates in the central Canada Basin. The state estimation framework is also used to explore the potential utility of Argo-type floats in regions with sparse data coverage, such as the eastern Arctic and the seasonal ice zones. Finally, the framework is applied to identify potential deployment sites that optimize the impact of float measurements on bulk oceanographic quantities of interest.
    Description: This research was supported by NSF Grants PLR-1643339, PLR-1603903, and PLR- 1603660.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-10-06
    Description: Author Posting. © The Oceanography Society, 2017. This article is posted here by permission of The Oceanography Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Oceanography 30, no. 2 (2017): 74–87, doi:10.5670/oceanog.2017.224.
    Description: The Arabian Sea circulation is forced by strong monsoonal winds and is characterized by vigorous seasonally reversing currents, extreme differences in sea surface salinity, localized substantial upwelling, and widespread submesoscale thermohaline structures. Its complicated sea surface temperature patterns are important for the onset and evolution of the Asian monsoon. This article describes a program that aims to elucidate the role of upper-ocean processes and atmospheric feedbacks in setting the sea surface temperature properties of the region. The wide range of spatial and temporal scales and the difficulty of accessing much of the region with ships due to piracy motivated a novel approach based on state-of-the-art autonomous ocean sensors and platforms. The extensive data set that is being collected, combined with numerical models and remote sensing data, confirms the role of planetary waves in the reversal of the Somali Current system. These data also document the fast response of the upper equatorial ocean to monsoon winds through changes in temperature and salinity and the connectivity of the surface currents across the northern Indian Ocean. New observations of thermohaline interleaving structures and mixing in setting the surface temperature properties of the northern Arabian Sea are also discussed.
    Description: The authors were funded through NASCar DRI grants. Additional support from the Global Drifter Program, grant NA15OAR4320071 (LC, VH); the CSL Laboratory at the NCAR CISL (Yellowstone ark:/85065/d7wd3xhc) (JMC); and the Department of Energy ACME project DE-SC0012778 (JMC) are gratefully acknowledged.
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © Macmillan Publishers, 2009. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Macmillan Publishers for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Nature Geoscience 2 (2009): 67-72, doi:10.1038/ngeo382.
    Description: The process of open-ocean convection in the subpolar North Atlantic Ocean forms a dense water mass that impacts the meridional overturning circulation and heat flux, and sequesters atmospheric carbon. In recent years the convection has been shallow or nonexistent, which could be construed as a consequence of a warmer climate. However, in the winter of 2007-08 deep convection returned to the subpolar gyre in both the Labrador and Irminger Seas. Here we document this return and elucidate the reasons why it happened. Profiling float data from the Argo programme are used to document the deep mixing, and a variety of in-situ, satellite, and reanalysis products are analyzed to describe the conditions leading to the overturning. The transition to a convective state took place abruptly, without going through a preconditioning phase, which is contrary to general expectations. Changes in the hemispheric air temperature, tracks of storms, flux of freshwater to the Labrador Sea, and distribution of pack ice all conspired to enhance the air-sea heat flux, resulting in the deep overturning. This study illuminates the complexity of the North Atlantic convective system.
    Description: Support for this work was provided by the Ocean Sciences Division of the National Science Foundation.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2007. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research 112 (2007): C03S18, doi:10.1029/2006JC003726.
    Description: A two-way interacting high resolution numerical simulation of the Adriatic Sea using the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) and Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS®) was conducted to improve forecast momentum and heat flux fields, and to evaluate surface flux field differences for two consecutive bora events during February 2003. (COAMPS® is a registered trademark of the Naval Research Laboratory.) The strength, mean positions and extensions of the bora jets, and the atmospheric conditions driving them varied considerably between the two events. Bora 1 had 62% stronger heat flux and 51% larger momentum flux than bora 2. The latter displayed much greater diurnal variability characterized by inertial oscillations and the early morning strengthening of a west Adriatic barrier jet, beneath which a stronger west Adriatic ocean current developed. Elsewhere, surface ocean current differences between the two events were directly related to differences in wind stress curl generated by the position and strength of the individual bora jets. The mean heat flux bias was reduced by 72%, and heat flux RMSE reduced by 30% on average at four instrumented over-water sites in the two-way coupled simulation relative to the uncoupled control. Largest reductions in wind stress were found in the bora jets, while the biggest reductions in heat flux were found along the north and west coasts of the Adriatic. In bora 2, SST gradients impacted the wind stress curl along the north and west coasts, and in bora 1 wind stress curl was sensitive to the Istrian front position and strength. The two-way coupled simulation produced diminished surface current speeds of ∼12% over the northern Adriatic during both bora compared with a one-way coupled simulation.
    Description: The research support for J. Pullen, J. D. Doyle, and T. Haack was provided by the Office of Naval Research (ONR) program elements 0602435N and 0601153N.
    Keywords: Air-sea interaction ; Coupled modeling ; Adriatic Sea
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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