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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0967
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Primary carbonates in peridotite xenoliths from the East African Rift in northeastern Tanzania occur as intergranular patches with accessory minerals (olivine and spinel), as patches with accessory magmatic minerals (nepheline), and as round monomineralic inclusions in primary olivine grains. All are characterized by calcitic compositions (Ca/Ca + Mg + Fe from 0.83 to 0.99), extremely low SiO2 + Al2O3 + Na2O + K2O, low trace element abundance [total rare-earth element (REE) abundance 〈25 ppm], uniform extinction, and lack of reaction textures with the host xenolith. Calculated Fe–Mg exchange coefficients between carbonate and primary olivine indicate disequilibrium in most samples. Combined with the lack of significant reaction textures, this suggests that the carbonates were introduced shortly before or during eruption of the host magma. A global compilation of electron microprobe analyses of mantle-derived carbonates (in xenoliths, xenocrysts, and megacrysts) reveals compositional clusters near end member calcite, end member magnesite, and stoichiometric dolomite. Eutectic liquid compositions are less common, suggesting that many carbonate inclusions reported worldwide may be crystalline precipitates. Likewise, the calcites in this study are not interpreted to represent quenched carbonatitic melts, but are interpreted instead to be crystalline cumulates from such melts. These inferences are consistent with recent experiments, which show that carbonatitic melts cannot become more calcitic than CaCO3∼80 wt%. Low trace element abundance may be a diagnostic feature of cumulate carbonate, and in combination with petrography and major element composition, serve to distinguish it from quenched carbonated liquid.
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-01-28
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 92 data points
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-11-19
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 156 data points
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-09-27
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 178 data points
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-04-16
    Description: The compatibility of vanadium (V) during mantle melting is a function of oxygen fugacity (fO2): at high fO2's, V becomes more incompatible. The prospects and limitations of using the V content of peridotites as a proxy for paleo-fO2 at the time of melt extraction were investigated here by assessing the uncertainties in V measurements and the sensitivity of V as a function of degree of melt extracted and fO2. V-MgO and V-Al2O3 systematics were found to be sensitive to fO2 variations, but consideration of the uncertainties in measurements and model parameters indicates that V is sensitive only to relative fO2 differences greater than ~2 log units. Post-Archean oceanic mantle peridotites, as represented by abyssal peridotites and obducted massif peridotites, have V-MgO and -Al2O3 systematics that can be modeled by 1.5 GPa melting between FMQ - 3 and FMQ - 1. This is consistent with fO2's of the mantle source for mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs) as determined by the Fe3+ activity of peridotitic minerals and basaltic glasses. Some arc-related peridotites have slightly lower V for a given degree of melting than oceanic mantle peridotites, and can be modeled by 1.5 GPa melting at fO2's as high as FMQ. However, the majority of arc-related peridotites have V-MgO systematics overlapping that of oceanic mantle peridotites, suggesting that although some arc mantle may melt under slightly oxidizing conditions, most arc mantle does not. The fact that thermobarometrically determined fO2's in arc peridotites and lavas can be significantly higher than that inferred from V systematics, suggests that V retains a record of the fO2 during partial melting, whereas the activity of Fe3+ in arc peridotitic minerals and lavas reflect subsequent metasomatic overprints and magmatic differentiation/emplacement processes, respectively. Peridotites associated with middle to late Archean cratonic mantle are characterized by highly variable V-MgO systematics. Tanzanian cratonic peridotites have V systematics indistinguishable from post-Archean oceanic mantle and can be modeled by 3 GPa partial melting at ~FMQ - 3. In contrast, many South African and Siberian cratonic peridotites have much lower V contents for a given degree of melting, suggesting at first glance that partial melting occurred at high fO2's. More likely, however, their unusually low V contents for a given degree of melting may be artifacts of excess orthopyroxene, a feature that pervades many South African and Siberian peridotites but not the Tanzanian peridotites. This is indicated by the fact that the V contents of South African and Siberian peridotites are correlated with increases in SiO2 content, generating data arrays that cannot be modeled by partial melting but can instead be generated by the addition of orthopyroxene through processes unrelated to primary melt depletion. Correction for orthopyroxene addition suggests that the South African and Siberian peridotites have V-MgO systematics similar to those of Tanzanian peridotites. Thus, if the Tanzanian peridotites represent the original partial melting residues, and if the South African and Siberian peridotites have been modified by orthopyroxene addition, then there is no indication that Archean cratonic mantle formed under fO2's significantly greater than that of modern oceanic mantle. Instead, the fO2's inferred from the V systematics in these three cratonic peridotite suites are within range of modern oceanic mantle. This also suggests that the transition from a highly reducing mantle in equilibrium with a metallic core to the present oxidized state must have occurred by late Archean times.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Stable continental regions, free from tectonic activity, are generally found only within ancient cratons—the centres of continents which formed in the Archaean era, 4.0–2.5 Gyr ago. But in the Cordilleran mountain belt of western North America some younger (middle ...
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  • 7
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Lee, Cin-Ty Aeolus; Wasserburg, Gerald J; Kyte, Frank T (2003): Platinum-group elements (PGE) and rhenium in marine sediments across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary; constraints on Re-PGE transport in the marine environment. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 67(4), 655-670, https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7037(02)01135-3
    Publication Date: 2019-02-13
    Description: The nature of Re-platinum-group element (PGE; Pt, Pd, Ir, Os, Ru) transport in the marine environment was investigated by means of marine sediments at and across the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary (KTB) at two hemipelagic sites in Europe and two pelagic sites in the North and South Pacific. A traverse across the KTB in the South Pacific pelagic clay core found elevated levels of Re, Pt, Ir, Os, and Ru, each of which is approximately symmetrically distributed over a distance of ~1.8 m across the KTB. The Re-PGE abundance patterns are fractionated from chondritic relative abundances: Ru, Pt, Pd, and Re contents are slightly subchondritic relative to Ir, and Os is depleted by ~95% relative to chondritic Ir proportions. A similar depletion in Os (~90%) was found in a sample of the pelagic KTB in the North Pacific, but it is enriched in Ru, Pt, Pd, and Re relative to Ir. The two hemipelagic KTB clays have near-chondritic abundance patterns. The ~1.8-m-wide Re-PGE peak in the pelagic South Pacific section cannot be reconciled with the fallout of a single impactor, indicating that postdepositional redistribution has occurred. The elemental profiles appear to fit diffusion profiles, although bioturbation could have also played a role. If diffusion had occurred over ~65 Ma, the effective diffusivities are ~10**?13 cm**2/s, much smaller than that of soluble cations in pore waters (~10**?6 cm**2/s). The coupling of Re and the PGEs during redistribution indicates that postdepositional processes did not significantly fractionate their relative abundances. If redistribution was caused by diffusion, then the effective diffusivities are the same. Fractionation of Os from Ir during the KTB interval must therefore have occurred during aqueous transport in the marine environment. Distinctly subchondritic Os/Ir ratios throughout the Cenozoic in the South Pacific core further suggest that fractionation of Os from Ir in the marine environment is a general process throughout geologic time because most of the inputs of Os and Ir into the ocean have Os/Ir ratios 〉/=1. Mass balance calculations show that Os and Re burial fluxes in pelagic sediments account for only a small fraction of the riverine Os (〈10%) and Re (〈0.1%) inputs into the oceans. In contrast, burial of Ir in pelagic sediments is similar to the riverine Ir input, indicating that pelagic sediments are a much larger repository for Ir than for Os and Re. If all of the missing Os and Re is assumed to reside in anoxic sediments in oceanic margins, the calculated burial fluxes in anoxic sediments are similar to observed burial fluxes. However, putting all of the missing Os and Re into estuarine sediments would require high concentrations to balance the riverine input and would also fail to explain the depletion of Os at pelagic KTB sites, where at most ~25% of the K-T impactor's Os could have passed through estuaries. If Os is preferentially sequestered in anoxic marine environments, it follows that the Os/Ir ratio of pelagic sediments should be sensitive to changes in the rates of anoxic sediment deposition. There is thus a clear fractionation of Os and Re from Ir in precipitation out of sea water in pelagic sections. Accordingly, it is inferred here that Re and Os are removed from sea water in anoxic marine depositional regimes.
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-04-16
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 178 data points
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-01-28
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 87 data points
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  • 10
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Nielsen, Sune G; Goff, Matt; Hesselbo, Stephen P; Jenkyns, Hugh C; LaRowe, Doug E; Lee, Cin-Ty Aeolus (2011): Thallium isotopes in early diagenetic pyrite - A paleoredox proxy? Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 75(21), 6690-6704, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2011.07.047
    Publication Date: 2019-02-13
    Description: This paper presents the first study of Tl isotopes in early diagenetic pyrite. Measurements from two sections deposited during the Toarcian Ocean Anoxic Event (T-OAE, ~183 Ma) are compared with data from Late Neogene (〈10 Ma) pyrite samples from ODP legs 165 and 167 that were deposited in relatively oxic marine environments. The Tl isotope compositions of Late Neogene pyrites are all significantly heavier than seawater, which most likely indicates that Tl in diagenetic pyrite is partially sourced from ferromanganese oxy-hydroxides that are known to display relatively heavy Tl isotope signatures. One of the T-OAE sections from Peniche in Portugal displays pyrite thallium isotope compositions indistinguishable from Late Neogene samples, whereas samples from Yorkshire in the UK are depleted in the heavy isotope of Tl. These lighter compositions are best explained by the lack of ferromanganese precipitation at the sediment-water interface due to the sulfidic (euxinic) conditions thought to be prevalent in the Cleveland Basin where the Yorkshire section was deposited. The heavier signatures in the Peniche samples appear to result from an oxic water column that enabled precipitation of ferromanganese oxy-hydroxides at the sediment-water interface. The Tl isotope profile from Yorkshire is also compared with previously published molybdenum isotope ratios determined on the same sedimentary succession. There is a suggestion of an anti-correlation between these two isotope systems, which is consistent with the expected isotope shifts that occur in seawater when marine oxic (ferromanganese minerals) fluxes fluctuate. The results outlined here represent the first evidence that Tl isotopes in early diagenetic pyrite have potential to reveal variations in past ocean oxygenation on a local scale and potentially also for global oceans. However, much more information about Tl isotopes in different marine environments, especially in anoxic/euxinic basins, is needed before Tl isotopes can be confidently utilized as a paleo-redox tracer.
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    Format: application/zip, 3 datasets
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