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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-8922
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract Tests of cross-ply composite tubes were performed under combined axial and torsional loading up to failure. Strength properties and failure mechanisms were evaluated with reference to the biaxiality ratio of the loading. The scattering of the biaxial strength data was analyzed using the Weibull distribution. The axial contraction of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) tubes under biaxial loading was investigated theoretically and experimentally. Artificial neural networks were introduced to predict the failure strength using the algorithm of the error back-propagation. The prediction was also made by the Tsai-Wu theory using the experimental data and by the combined optimized tensor-polynomial theory. A comparison shows that the artificial neural network has the smallest root-mean square (RMS) error of the three prediction methods. The prediction of the axial contraction of the tubes correlates well with the results of a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) of the testing machine. From the phenomenological analysis of the failure and the fractographic observations of the fracture surface, three types of failure modes and microscopic failure were investigated, depending on the biaxiality ratio, and the corresponding failure mechanisms are suggested.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-9686
    Keywords: Valve closure ; Tilting disc valve ; Peripheral clearance ; Instantaneous back flow ; Computational fluid dynamic analysis ; Wall shear stress ; Pressure ; Cavitation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Abstract An investigation of the flow dynamics through the peripheral clearance (the gap formed between the occluder tip and the metal housing in the closed position) of a tilting disc heart valve at the moment of valve closure is presented. A Medtronic Hall valve in the mitral position of anin vitro experimental set up is employed to measure the transient pressure pulses near the entrance (ventricular side) and exit (atrial side) of the peripheral clearance at valve closure. Flow within the peripheral clearance is analyzed employing a two-dimensional quasisteady computational fluid dynamics model with the measured peak pressures specified as the boundary conditions inducing the flow. The valve is visualized from its inflow (atrial) side using a stroboscopic lighting technique to investigate the presence of cavitation bubbles within the clearance. The pressure measurements showed that a relatively large pressure drop exists between the entrance and the exit to the clearance for about 0.5 msec at the moment of valve closure. The numerical simulation resulted in relatively large magnitudes of wall shear stress and pressure reduction within the clearance due to the flow established by the large pressure drop between the entrance and the exit. Cavitation bubbles visualized within the peripheral clearance at higher loading rates for valve closure correlated with the presence of large pressure reduction within the clearance. Analysis of the results of this study indicates that the back flow through the clearance at the instant of valve closure may contribute toward injury to formed elements in blood in spite of the short duration of the flow.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1588-2780
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract In order to determine the operating conditions of an electrolyzer to recover lithium metal from molten salt wastes composed of LiCl, Li2O, Cs2O, and SrO, electrolytic reduction experiments have been carried out in a single compartment electrochemical reactor with a mono-polar connection. All the combinative experiments were conducted in an argon atmospheric glove box, and each applied potential-current value was synchronously measured and analyzed in aspects of the preferentially recovering probability of lithium in mixed phases. The effect of the electrode surface area on the current was also observed. Based on our experimental results compared with electrochemical thermodynamic evaluation, it is revealed that Li2O can be preferentially reduced to lithium by controlled LiCl concentration and applied potential.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-9686
    Keywords: Aortic bifurcation ; Atherosclerosis ; Wall shear stress ; Vasoactive drugs ; Phase angle ; Abdominal aorta
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Medicine , Technology
    Notes: Abstract The present study compares the wall shear stress (rate) distribution in a compliant aortic bifurcation model under three different hemodynamic states: normal state, angiotensin II infusion state (vasoconstrictor), and isoproterenol infusion state (vasodilator). Using a Newtonian blood analog fluid, flow wave forms corresponding to each flow state were generated in an in vitro flow loop and a photographic flow visualization technique was employed to measure wall shear rate. The results indicate a zone of low mean wall shear stress and highly oscillatory shear stress on the outer (lateral) wall of the bifurcation. In this zone, the mean wall shear stress became negative for all three hemodynamic states indicating flow separation. However, the spatial extent of the flow separation zone was not affected significantly by the flow state. The study also revealed a large spatial variation of the phase angle between the hoop strain (circumferential strain due to radial artery expansion) and the wall shear stress, the two main mechanical stimuli acting on endothelial cells which affect their biology. In the zone of low mean wall shear stress on the outer wall, the two stimuli were more out of phase relative to the mother branch, whereas they were less out of phase (by about 50°) on the inner wall (flow divider side). This phase angle was affected significantly by the flow state. For angiotensin II, the phase angle reached a maximum of 125° in the low mean shear zone while the maximum was 94° and 66° for the normal and isoproterenol states, respectively. Our observation that large phase angles between the hoop strain and wall shear stress wave forms are localized in the low shear stress region where atherosclerotic disease occurs suggests the possible physiological relevance of this phase angle to the development of atherosclerosis. © 1998 Biomedical Engineering Society. PAC98: 8745Hw
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Dynamics and control 2 (1992), S. 131-145 
    ISSN: 1573-8450
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Abstract In a recent paper [1], Lee and Leitmann considered a two-compartment drug administration model with bounded uncertainty appearing in the system parameters and with the so-called “matching conditions” not satisfied. They employed the control proposed by Barmish and Leitmann [10] to bring the drug concentration level of compartment R from any initial value to the desired, predetermined level and then to maintain it in a calculable neighborhood of that level thereafter until the end of the specified period. In this article, we propose a robust, stabilizing control for the same model and for the same purpose without having to satisfy the so-called mismatch threshold conditon of Barmish and Leitmann [10].
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1420-8903
    Keywords: Primary ; 47D99, 39B70 ; Secondary 41A36
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-2673
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of materials science 10 (1975), S. 1394-1404 
    ISSN: 1573-4803
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract Some observations are made on the fractography of surfaces obtained by cracking “compact tension” profile testpieces of PMMA over a range of temperatures and crack speeds, both stably and unstably. To a first approximation, it was possible to group and “shift” (as in visco-elastic transformations) characteristic surface markings at various fracture toughness/temperature/crack velocity combinations, particularly in the range where a toughness-biased Ree-Eyring relationship described the experimental toughness data.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-4803
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract Wear behaviour of aluminium matrix composites is characterized by the dry spindle wear test under various conditions (volume fractions of reinforcements, sliding distances and speeds). Wear resistance of composites is improved due to the presence of reinforcements, but no noticeable improvements are observed in the wear resistance with more than 20% addition of reinforcements. To analyse wear mechanisms, wear surfaces are examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The major wear mechanisms of discontinuous metal matrix composites (MMC)s are strongly dependent on sliding speeds. Dominant mechanism is the adhesive-abrasive wear at low and intermediate sliding speeds, and melt wear at high sliding speeds. Weight loss is linearly increased with the sliding distance. The effect of reinforcements' orientations on wear behaviours is also discussed.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-4811
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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