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  • 1
    Call number: ZSP-201-82/36
    In: CRREL Report, 82-36
    Description / Table of Contents: Camp construction and drilling activities in 1950 at the East Oumalik drill site in northern Alaska caused extensive degradation of ice-rich, perennially frozen silt and irreversible modification of the upland terrain. In a study of the long-term degradational effects at this site, the near-surface geology was defined by drilling and coring 76 holes (maximum depth of 34 m) in disturbed and undisturbed areas and by laboratory analyses of these cores. Terrain disturbances, including bulldozed roads and excavations, camp structures and off-road vehicle trails, were found to have severely disrupted the site's thermal regime. This led to a thickening of the active layer, melting of the ground ice, thaw subsidence and thaw consolidation of the sediments. Slumps, sediment gravity flows and collapse of materials on slopes bounding thaw depressions expanded the degradation laterally, with thermal and hydraulic erosion removing materials as the depressions widened and deepened with time. Degradational processes became less active after thawed sediments thickened sufficiently to slow the increase in the depth of thaw and permit slope stabilization. The site's terrain is now irregular and hummocky with numerous depressions. Seasonal thaw depths are deeper in disturbed areas than in undisturbed areas and reflect the new moisture conditions and morphology. The severity of disturbance is much greater at East Oumalik than at another old drill site, Fish Creek. The difference results primarily from differences in the physical properties of the sediments, including the quantity and distribution of ground ice.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: 42 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 82-36
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Summary Introduction Methodology Geologic setting Camp construction and occupation Types of disturbance Degradational processes and the effective area of impact Areal effects of disturbance Topography Groundwater, surface water and drainage Sediment properties and near-surface stratigraphy Surficial processes Depth of thaw Comparison to Fish Creek Discussion and conclusions Literature cited
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  • 2
    Call number: ZSP-201-80/4
    In: CRREL Report, 80-4
    Description / Table of Contents: The primary objectives of this study were to 1) prepare a map from Landsat imagery of the Upper Susitna River Basin drainage network, lakes, glaciers and snowfields, 2) identify possible faults and lineaments within the upper basin and within a 100-km radius of the proposed Devil Canyon and Watana dam sites as observed on Landsat imagery, and 3) prepare a Landsat-derived map showing the distribution of surficial geologic materials and poorly drained areas. The EROS Digital Image Enhancement System (EDIES) provided computer- enhanced images of Landsat-1 scene 5470-19560. The EDIES false color composite of this scene was used as the base for mapping drainage network, lakes, glaciers and snowfields, six surficial geologic materials units and poorly drained areas. We used some single-band and other color composites of Landsat images during interpretation. All the above maps were prepared by photointerpretation of Landsat images without using computer analysis, aerial photographs, field data, or published reports. These other data sources were used only after the mapping was completed to compare and verify the information interpreted and delineations mapped from the Landsat images. Four Landsat-1 MSS band 7 winter scenes were used in the photomosaic prepared for the lineament mapping. We mapped only those lineaments related to reported regional tectonics, although there were many more lineaments evident on the Landsat photomosaic.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iii, 41 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 80-4
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Summary Objectives Conclusions Introduction Background Previous cooperative investigations Project rationale and coordination Approach Landsat imagery Interpretation techniques Part I. Use of Landsat imagery in mapping the drainage network, lakes, glaciers and snowfields (Lawrence W. Gatto) Objective Methods Results Conclusions Part II. Use of Landsat imagery in mapping and evaluating geologiclineaments and possible faults (Carolyn J. Merry) Objective Geologic structure Methods Results Conclusions Part Ill. Use of Landsat imagery in mapping surficial materials Section A. Landsat mapping (Harlan L. McKim) Objective Methods Results Section B. Field evaluation (Daniel E. Lawson) Objectives Methods Results Discussion Section C. Conclusions (Daniel E. Lawson and Harlan L. McKim) Literature cited Glossary
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  • 3
    Call number: ZSP-201-85/1
    In: CRREL Report, 85-1
    Description / Table of Contents: An expensive drill has been modified to provide researchers with the ability to auger an open hole or to acquire continuous, undisturbed 76-mm-diam core samples of a variety of perennially frozen materials that are suitable for chemical and petrographic analysis. It was developed by field testing in support of research from 1980 to 1983. Operation of the drill is based mainly on using a minimum of power to cut through frozen ground with tungsten carbide cutters on a CRREL coring auger. The ice content, temperature and grain size of the frozen sediments are important variables determining the sampling depth. Perennially frozen sediments with temperatures in the range of -0.5 C to -8.5 C have been continuously cored with this drill. Drilling and sampling are most efficiently conducted when ambient air temperatures are below freezing and the active layer is frozen. The self-contained lightweight drill is readily transportable off-road by helicopter or tracked vehicle, or by towing over roads. It is locally self-mobile by use of a winch. Total cost of the drill and modifications is estimated at approximately $10,000.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: v, 34 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 85-1
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Introduction Background on development Drill development and configuration Equipment Modifications Operations Assembly and disassembly Field transport and movement Typical operating procedures Effect of material properties, weather and water Depth and hole completion time Summary Literature cited
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  • 4
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-201-83/29
    In: CRREL Report, 83-29
    Description / Table of Contents: A literature review indicated that the effects or permafrost on streambank erodibility and stability are not yet understood because systematic and quantitative measurements are seriously lacking. Consequently, general controversy exists as to whether perennially frozen ground inhibits lateral erosion and bankline recession, or whether it increases bank recession rates. Perennially frozen streambanks erode because of modification of the bank's thermal regime by exposure to air and water, and because of various erosional processes. Factors that determine rates and locations of erosion include physical, thermal and structural properties of bank sediments, stream hydraulics and climate. Thermal and physical modification of streambanks may also induce accelerated erosion within permafrost terrain removed from the immediate river environment. Bankline or bluffline recession rates are highly variable, ranging from less than 1 m/year to over 30 m/year and, exceptionally, to over 60 m/year. Long-term observations of the physical and thermal erosion processes and systematic ground surveys and measurements of bankline-bluffline recession rates are needed.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 26 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 83-29
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Introduction Stream bank erosional processes Permafrost and related factors Permafrost and erosion General Erosional processes Bank zone processes Bluff zone processes Factors affecting perm afrost erodibility Exposure to currents and wind waves Texture and stratigraphy Ice content, distribution and type Slope aspect Coriolis force Timing and depth of thaw Water level and temperature Vegetation Ice and snow cover Groundwater Rates and timing of erosion and recession Overall effects of permafrost Recommendations for research Literature cited Appendix A : Processes of stream bank modifications
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  • 5
    Call number: ZSP-201-86/11
    In: CRREL Report, 86-11
    Description / Table of Contents: This initial study of the ice-covered Tanana River, near Fairbanks, Alaska, attempted to 1) establish field methods for systematic and repetitive quantitative analyses of an ice-covered river's regime, 2) evaluate the instruments and equipment for sampling, and 3) obtain the initial data of a long-term study of ice cover effects on the morphology, hydraulics and sediment transport of a braided river. A methodology was established, and detailed measurements and samplings, including profiling by geophysical techniques, were conducted along cross sections of the river. A small, portable rotary drill rig equipped with a 356-mm (14-in.) ice auger was used to cut large diameter holes in the ice cover for through-the-ice measurements. Portable heat sources and a heated shelter were required to continuously thaw and dry equipment for the repetitive measurements. Measurements included ice cover thickness, water level, water depth, temperature, flow velocity, suspended load and bed load, frazil ice distribution and bed material composition. Remotely gathered data included apparent resistivity and subsurface radar profiling. The various techniques, sampling gear and problems encountered during use in the subfreezing cold are described in detail in this report.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: v, 49 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 86-11
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Introduction Study objectives and field locale Study site Equipment Vehicles Drilling equipment Sampling equipment Geophysical equipment Shelter and icing control Surveying equipment Miscellaneous equipment Field techniques and methodology Logistics Drilling procedures Data collection Geophysical analyses Experiences summary Morphology, transport and hydraulic data Mid-winter physical characteristics Hydraulic characteristics Sediment transport Late winter physical characteristics Seasonal morphology Geophysical data interpretation Spatial morphology Frazil ice characteristics Discussion and conclusions Recommendations Equipment Research Literature cited
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  • 6
    Call number: ZSP-201-87/17
    In: CRREL Report, 87-17
    Description / Table of Contents: The ability to map frazil ice deposits and water channels beneath an ice-covered river in central Alaska using the magnetic induction conductivity (MI) technique has been assessed. The study was performed during the first week of March of 1986 on the Tanana River near Fairbanks and employed a commercially available instrument operating at a fixed frequency with a fixed antenna (coil) spacing and orientation. Comparisons of the MI data with theoretical models based upon physical data measured along three cross sections of the river demonstrate the sensitivity of the MI technique to frazil ice deposits. The conductivity generally derived for the frazil ice deposits encountered is very low (approx. .00063 s/m) when compared with the measured value for water (approx. 0.011 S/m), and is similar to the calculated values for gravel and sandy gravel bed sediments. In all three cross sections, maxima in the apparent conductivity profiles correlated with frazil ice deposits. Difficulties, possibly due to adverse effects of cold weather upon instrument calibration, affected the quantitative performance of the instrument on one cross section, although the interpretation of the data (locations of open channels vs frazil deposits) was qualitatively unaffected.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iii, 17 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 87-17
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Introduction Magnetic induction conductivity method Site description and survey methods Cross section field data and modeling results X6 X3A X4 Conclusions and recommendations Literature cited Appendix A: Discussion of errors Appendix B: Modeling data
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  • 7
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Hanover, N.H. : U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers, Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-201-79/9
    In: CRREL Report, 79-9
    Description / Table of Contents: Sedimentation at the terminus of the Matanuska Glacier has been found to be primarily subaerial in a 100- to 300-m wide, ice-cored zone paralleling the edge of the active ice. Certain physical and chemical characteristics of the ice and debris of the superglacial, englacial and basal zones of the glacier indicate the debris of the basal zone, the primary source of sediment, is entrained during freeze-on of meltwater, probably surficially derived, to the glacier sole. Till formation results from the melting of buried ice of the basal zone. Melt-out till inherits the texture and particle orientations of basal ice debris; other properties are not as well preserved. Most deposits result from resedimentation of till and debris by sediment gravity flows, meltwater sheet and rill flow, slump, spall, and ice ablation. Depositional processes are interrelated in the process of backwasting of ice-cored slopes. Sediment flows are the primary process of resedimentation. Their physical characteristics, multiple mechanisms of flow and deposition, and characteristics of their deposits vary with the water content of the flow mass. Deposits of each process are distinguished from one another by detailed analysis of their internal organization, geometry and dimensions, and the presence of other internal and related external features. Genetic facies are defined by these characteristics. The interrelationship of processes develops a composite depositional sequence defined in terms of genetic facies associations; an upper, resedimented facies association, a middile, till facies association, and a lower, subglacial-resedimental facies association. The lateral and vertical distribution of genetic facies within the associations is mainly nonrepetitive.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: X, 112 Seiten , Illustrationen , 1 Beilage
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 79-9
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Summary Chapter 1. Introduction Field site Historical background Chapter 2. Characteristics of the debris and ice Characteristics of the facies and subfacies Basal zone Characteristics of the debris Discussion Chapter 3. Oxygen isotope analysis Sampling and analysis Results Discussion Chapter 4. Depositional processes—till formation Methods of analysis Environmental setting Till formation Chapter 5. Depositional processes—resedimentation Sediment flows Other resedimentation processes Resedimentation process relationships Chapter 6. Process distribution, sediment dispersal and depositional patterns Physical characteristics Sediment dispersal Sedimentary facies Patterns of terminus sedimentation Chapter 7. Conclusions Literature cited
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2003-01-01
    Description: In August 2000, we used cross-borehole ground penetrating radar (GPR) measurements to investigate sites on Fort Wainwright, Alaska, and east of the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) permafrost tunnel near Fox, Alaska. The sites are characterized by perennially frozen soils characteristic of much of interior Alaska. The purpose of this investigation was to define variations in GPR signal velocity and attenuation that may be indicative of hydrocarbon contamination and to determine if downhole GPR methods could detect petroleum contaminants. To acquire background information for comparison, we conducted detailed investigations in non-contaminated areas to define general conditions before we profiled at the Fort Wainwright Tank Farm where extensive contamination has been documented. Results showed that cross-borehole GPR is a useful tool for detecting changes in electrical characteristics in permafrost and contaminated environments. Bulk electrical properties (velocity and attenuation) were observed to vary systematically between frozen and unfrozen materials, and produced distinct signal responses to frozen/unfrozen sediments, bedrock and massive ground ice. There is considerable overlap in both velocity and attenuation for soils and rock. Fine-grained silts exhibit higher attenuation (9-10 dB m-1) than coarser sand and gravel (1.5-2 dB m-1). Bedrock values are intermediate (2-7 dB m-1). Unfrozen sediment and rock exhibit velocities between 0.05 m ns-1 and 0.1 m ns-1 and attenuation ranges from 4 dB m-1 to 11 dB m-1 at 100 Mhz while frozen materials are between the velocities of 0.1 m ns-1 and 0.18 m ns-1 and 1.5 dB m-1 and 10 dB m-1 at -0.3 {degrees}C. The general trend is for frozen materials to have higher velocities than their unsaturated or saturated counterparts. Preliminary results where petroleum contamination was pervasive show that the attenuation decreases from 6 dB m-1 to 7 dB m-1 in uncontaminated schist to 4 dB m-1 in the hydrocarbon-contaminated schist. Additional measurements are required to determine that the observed decrease in attenuation is primarily related to petroleum contamination.
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 1982-05-01
    Print ISSN: 0022-1376
    Electronic ISSN: 1537-5269
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 1985-09-01
    Print ISSN: 0022-1376
    Electronic ISSN: 1537-5269
    Topics: Geosciences
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