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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-09-26
    Description: Abstract
    Description: Version History11 Sep 2019: Release of Version 1.1 with the following changes: (1) new licence: CC BY SA 4.0, modification of the title: removal of file name and version); (2) addition of ORIDs when available; (3) actualisation of affiliations for some authors The metadata of the first version 1.0 is available in the download folder.. Data and file names remain unchanged.Area Source model for Central AsiaThe area sources for Central Asia within the EMCA model are defined by mainly considering the pattern of crustal seismicity down to 50 km depth. Although tectonic and geological information, such as the position and strike distribution of known faults, have also been taken into account when available. Large area sources (see, for example source_id 1, 2, 5, 45 and 52, source ids are identified by parameter “source_id” in the related shapefile) are defined where the seismicity is scarce and there are no tectonic or geological features that would justify a further subdivision. Smaller area sources (e.g., source_id values 36 and 53) have been designed where the seismicity can be assigned to known fault zones.In order to obtain a robust estimation of the necessary parameters for PSHA derived by the statistical analysis of the seismicity, due to the scarcity of data in some of the areas covered by the model, super zones are introduced. These super zones are defined by combining area sources based on similarities in their tectonic regime, and taking into account local expert’s judgments. The super zones are used to estimate: (1) the completeness time of the earthquake catalogue, (2) the depth distribution of seismicity, (3) the tectonic regime through focal mechanisms analysis, (4) the maximum magnitude and (5) the b values via the GR relationship.The earthquake catalogue for focal mechanism is extracted from the Harvard Global Centroid Moment Tensor Catalog (Ekström and Nettles, 2013). For the focal mechanism classification, the Boore et al. (1997) convention is used. This means that an event is considered to be strike-slip if the absolute value of the rake angle is 〈=30 or 〉=150 degrees, normal if the rake angle is 〈-30 or 〉-150 and reverse (thrust) if the rake angle is 〉30 or 〈150 degrees. The distribution of source mechanisms and their weights are estimated for the super zones.For area sources, the maximum magnitude is usually taken from the historical seismicity, but due to some uncertainties in the magnitudes of the largest events, the opinions of the local experts are also included in assigning the maximum magnitude to each super zone. Super zones 2 and 3, which belongs to stable regions, are each assigned a maximum magnitude of 6, after Mooney et al. (2012), which concludes after analyses and observation of modern datasets that at least an event of magnitude 6 can occur anywhere in the world. For hazard calculations, each area source is assigned the maximum magnitude of their respective super zone.For processing the GR parameters (a and b values) for the area sources, the completeness analysis results estimated for the super zones are assigned to the respective smaller area sources. If the individual area source has at least 20 events, the GR parameters are then estimated for the area source. Otherwise, the b value is adopted from the respective super zone to which the smaller area source belongs, and the a value is estimated based on the Weichert (1980) method. This ensures the stability in the b value as well as the variation of activity rate for different sources.The hypocentral depth distribution is estimated from the seismicity inside each super zone. The depth distribution is considered for maximum up to three values. Based on the number of events, the weights are assigned to each distribution. These depth distributions, along with corresponding weights, are further assigned to the area sources within the same super zones.
    Description: Other
    Description: Distribution file: "EMCA_seismozonesv1.0_shp.zip"Version: v1.0Release date: 2015-07-30Format: ESRI ShapefileGeometry type: polygonsNumber of features: 63Spatial Reference System: +proj=longlat +ellps=WGS84 +datum=WGS84 +no_defsDistribution file: "EMCA_seismozonesv1.0_nrml.zip"Version: v1.0Release date: 2015-07-30Format: NRML (XML) Format compatible with the GEM OpenQuake platform (http://www.globalquakemodel.org/openquake/about/platform/)Feature attributes:src_id : Id of the seismic sourcesrc_name : Name of the seismic sourcetect_reg: Tectonic regime of the seismic sourceupp_seismo : Upper level of the the seismogenic depth (km)low_seismo : Lower level of the seismogenic depth (km)mag_scal_r: Magnitude scaling relationshiprup_asp_ra: Rupture aspect ratiomfd_type : Magnitude frequency distribution typemin_mag: Minimum magnitude of the magnitude frequency relationshipmax_mag: Maximum magnitude of the magnitude frequency relationshipa_value: a value of the magnitude frequency relationshipb_balue : b value of the magnitude frequency relationshipnum_npd: number of nodal plane distributionweight_1 : weight of 1st nodal plane distributionstrike_1: Strike of the seismic source (degrees)rake_1: rake of the seismic source (degrees)dip_1: dip of the seismic source (degrees)num_hdd: number of hypocentral depth distributionhdd_d_1: Depth of 1st hypocentral depth distribution (km)hdd_w_1: Weight of 1st hypocentral depth distribution
    Keywords: seismogenic sources ; central asia ; EMCA ; GEM ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 TECTONICS 〉 EARTHQUAKES 〉 EARTHQUAKE OCCURRENCES ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 TECTONICS 〉 EARTHQUAKES 〉 EARTHQUAKE MAGNITUDE/INTENSITY ; EARTH SCIENCE SERVICES 〉 DATA MANAGEMENT/DATA HANDLING 〉 CATALOGING
    Type: Dataset
    Format: 1 Files
    Format: application/octet-stream
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2014-07-23
    Description: From the rift that cuts through the heart of Iceland to the complex tectonic convergence that causes frequent and often deadly earthquakes in Italy, Greece, and Turkey to the volcanic tremors that rattle the Mediterranean, seismic activity is a prevalent and often life-threatening reality across Europe. Any attempt to mitigate the seismic risk faced by society requires an accurate estimate of the seismic hazard.
    Print ISSN: 0096-3941
    Electronic ISSN: 2324-9250
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-12-01
    Description: The 2013 European Seismic Hazard Model (ESHM13) results from a community-based probabilistic seismic hazard assessment supported by the EU-FP7 project “Seismic Hazard Harmonization in Europe” (SHARE, 2009–2013). The ESHM13 is a consistent seismic hazard model for Europe and Turkey which overcomes the limitation of national borders and includes a through quantification of the uncertainties. It is the first completed regional effort contributing to the “Global Earthquake Model” initiative. It might serve as a reference model for various applications, from earthquake preparedness to earthquake risk mitigation strategies, including the update of the European seismic regulations for building design (Eurocode 8), and thus it is useful for future safety assessment and improvement of private and public buildings. Although its results constitute a reference for Europe, they do not replace the existing national design regulations that are in place for seismic design and construction of buildings. The ESHM13 represents a significant improvement compared to previous efforts as it is based on (1) the compilation of updated and harmonised versions of the databases required for probabilistic seismic hazard assessment, (2) the adoption of standard procedures and robust methods, especially for expert elicitation and consensus building among hundreds of European experts, (3) the multi-disciplinary input from all branches of earthquake science and engineering, (4) the direct involvement of the CEN/TC250/SC8 committee in defining output specifications relevant for Eurocode 8 and (5) the accounting for epistemic uncertainties of model components and hazard results. Furthermore, enormous effort was devoted to transparently document and ensure open availability of all data, results and methods through the European Facility for Earthquake Hazard and Risk ( www.efehr.org ). ©2015 The Author(s)〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="http://doi.org/10.1007/s10518-015-9795-1" target="_blank"〉〈img src="http://bib.telegrafenberg.de/typo3temp/pics/f2f773b55e.png" border="0"〉〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 1570-761X
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-1456
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2015-04-25
    Description: Central Asia is one of the seismically most active regions in the world. Its complex seismicity due to the collision of the Eurasian and Indian plates has resulted in some of the world’s largest intra-plate events over history. The region is dominated by reverse faulting over strike slip and normal faulting events. The GSHAP project (1999), aiming at a hazard assessment on a global scale, indicated that the region of Central Asia is characterized by peak ground accelerations for 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years as high as 9 m/s 2 . In this study, carried out within the framework of the EMCA project (Earthquake Model Central Asia), the area source model and different kernel approaches are used for a probabilistic seismic hazard assessment (PSHA) for Central Asia. The seismic hazard is assessed considering shallow (depth 〈 50 km) seismicity only and employs an updated (with respect to previous projects) earthquake catalog for the region. The seismic hazard is calculated in terms of macroseismic intensity (MSK-64), intended to be used for the seismic risk maps of the region. The hazard maps, shown in terms of 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years, are derived by using the OpenQuake software [Pagani et al. 2014], which is an open source software tool developed by the GEM (Global Earthquake Model) foundation. The maximum hazard observed in the region reaches an intensity of around 8 in southern Tien Shan for 475 years mean return period. The maximum hazard estimated for some of the cities in the region, Bishkek, Dushanbe, Tashkent and Almaty, is between 7 and 8 (7-8), 8.0, 7.0 and 8.0 macroseismic Intensity, respectively, for 475 years mean return period, using different approaches. The results of different methods for assessing the level of seismic hazard are compared and their underlying methodologies are discussed.
    Print ISSN: 1593-5213
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 5
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    Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV)
    Publication Date: 2015-04-25
    Description: Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program - or simply GSHAP, when launched, almost two decades ago, aimed at establishing a common framework to evaluate the seismic hazard over geographical large-scales, i.e. countries, regions, continents and finally the globe. Its main product, the global seismic hazard map was a milestone, unique at that time and for a decade have served as the main reference worldwide. Today, for most of the Earth’s seismically active regions such Europe, Northern and Southern America, Central and South-East Asia, Japan, Australia, New Zealand, the GSHAP seismic hazard map is outdated. The rapid increase of the new data, advance on the earthquake process knowledge, technological progress, both hardware and software, contributed all in updates of the seismic hazard models. We present herein, a short retrospective overview of the achievements as well as the pitfalls of the GSHAP. Further, we describe the next generation of seismic hazard models, as elaborated within the Global Earthquake Model, regional programs: the 2013 European Seismic Hazard Model, the 2014 Earthquake Model for Middle East, and the 2015 Earthquake Model of Central Asia. Later, the main characteristics of these regional models are summarized and the new datasets fully harmonized across national borders are illustrated for the first time after the GSHAP completion.
    Print ISSN: 1593-5213
    Topics: Geosciences
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