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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0894
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The Madden and Julian Oscillation (MJO) is the most prominent mode of intraseasonal variations in the tropical region. It plays an important role in climate variability and has a significant influence on medium-to-extended ranges weather forecasting in the tropics. This study examines the forecast skill of the oscillation in a set of recent dynamical extended range forecasts (DERF) experiments performed by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP). The present DERF experiments were done with the reanalysis version of the medium range forecast (MRF) model and include 50-day forecasts, initialized once-a-day (0Z) with reanalyses fields, for the period between 1 January, 1985, and 31 December, 1989. The MRF model shows large mean errors in representing intraseasonal variations of the large-scale circulation, especially over the equatorial eastern Pacific Ocean. A diagnostic analysis has considered the different phases of the MJO and the associated forecast skill of the MRF model. Anomaly correlations on the order of 0.3 to 0.4 indicate that skillful forecasts extend out to 5 to 7 days lead-time. Furthermore, the results show a slight increase in the forecast skill for periods when convective anomalies associated with the MJO are intense. By removing the mean errors, the analysis shows systematic errors in the representation of the MJO with weaker than observed upper level zonal circulations. The examination of the climate run of the MRF model shows the existence of an intraseasonal oscillation, although less intense (50–70%) and with faster (nearly twice as fast) eastward propagation than the observed MJO. The results indicate that the MRF model likely has difficulty maintaining the MJO, which impacts its forecast. A discussion of future work to improve the representation of the MJO in dynamical models and assess its prediction is presented.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0894
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The ability of 15 atmospheric general circulation models (AGCM) to simulate the tropical intraseasonal oscillation has been studied as part of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP). Time series of the daily upper tropospheric velocity poential and zonal wind, averaged over the equatorial belt, were provided from each AGCM simulation. These data were analyzed using a variety of techniques such as time filtering and space-time spectral analysis to identify eastward and westward moving waves. The results have been compared with an identical assessment of the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analyses for the period 1982–1991. The models display a wide range of skill in simulating the intraseasonal oscillation. Most models show evidence of an eastward propagating anomaly in the velocity potential field, although in some models there is a greater tendency for a standing oscillation, and in one or two the field is rather chaotic with no preferred direction of propagation. Where a model has a clear eastward propagating signal, typical periodicities seem quite reasonable although there is a tendency for the models to simulate shorter periods than in the ECMWF analyses, where it is near 50 days. The results of the space-time spectral analysis have shown that no model has captured the dominance of the intraseasonal oscillation found in the analyses. Several models have peaks at intraseasonal time scales, but nearly all have relatively more power at higher frequencies (〈 30 days) than the analyses. Most models underestimate the strength of the intraseasonal variability. The observed intraseasonal oscillation shows a marked seasonality in its occurrence with greatest activity during northern winter and spring. Most models failed to capture this seasonality. The interannual variability in the activity of the intraseasonal oscillation has also been assessed, although the AMIP decade is too short to provide any conclusive results. There is a suggestion that the observed oscillation was suppressed during the strong El Niño of 1982/83, and this relationship has also been reproduced by some models. The relationship between a model's intraseasonal activity, its seasonal cycle and characteristics of its basic climate has been examined. It is clear that those models with weak intraseasonal activity tend also to have a weak seasonal cycle. It is becoming increasingly evident that an accurate description of the basic climate may be a prerequisite for producing a realistic intraseasonal oscillation. In particular, models with the most realistic intraseasonal oscillations appear to have precipitation distributions which are better correlated with warm sea surface temperatures. These models predominantly employ convective parameterizations which are closed on buoyancy rather than moisture convergence.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0894
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract. The ability of 15 atmospheric general circulation models (AGCM) to simulate the tropical intraseasonal oscillation has been studied as part of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP). Time series of the daily upper tropospheric velocity poential and zonal wind, averaged over the equatorial belt, were provided from each AGCM simulation. These data were analyzed using a variety of techniques such as time filtering and space-time spectral analysis to identify eastward and westward moving waves. The results have been compared with an identical assessment of the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analyses for the period 1982–1991. The models display a wide range of skill in simulating the intraseasonal oscillation. Most models show evidence of an eastward propagating anomaly in the velocity potential field, although in some models there is a greater tendency for a standing oscillation, and in one or two the field is rather chaotic with no preferred direction of propagation. Where a model has a clear eastward propagating signal, typical periodicities seem quite reasonable although there is a tendency for the models to simulate shorter periods than in the ECMWF analyses, where it is near 50 days. The results of the space-time spectral analysis have shown that no model has captured the dominance of the intraseasonal oscillation found in the analyses. Several models have peaks at intraseasonal time scales, but nearly all have relatively more power at higher frequencies (〈30 days) than the analyses. Most models underestimate the strength of the intraseasonal variability. The observed intraseasonal oscillation shows a marked seasonality in its occurrence with greatest activity during northern winter and spring. Most models failed to capture this seasonality. The interannual variability in the activity of the intraseasonal oscillation has also been assessed, although the AMIP decade is too short to provide any conclusive results. There is a suggestion that the observed oscillation was suppressed during the strong El Niño of 1982/83, and this relationship has also been reproduced by some models. The relationship between a model's intraseasonal activity, its seasonal cycle and characteristics of its basic climate has been examined. It is clear that those models with weak intraseasonal activity tend also to have a weak seasonal cycle. It is becoming increasingly evident that an accurate description of the basic climate may be a prerequisite for producing a realistic intraseasonal oscillation. In particular, models with the most realistic intraseasonal oscillations appear to have precipitation distributions which are better correlated with warm sea surface temperatures. These models predominantly employ convective parameterizations which are closed on buoyancy rather than moisture convergence.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0894
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract.  In this study, satellite-derived outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and the reanalysis from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research are used as verification data in a study of intraseasonal variability in the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres (GLA) and the United Kingdom Meteorological Office (UKMO) atmospheric general circulation models. These models simulated the most realistic intraseasonal oscillations (IO) of the 15 Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project models previously analyzed. During the active phase of the intraseasonal oscillation, convection is observed to migrate from the Indian Ocean to the western/central Pacific Ocean, and into the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ). The simulated convection, particularly in the GLA model, is most realistic over the western/central Pacific Ocean and the SPCZ. In the reanalysis, the baroclinic structure of the IO is evident in the eddy-stream function, and eastward migration of the anticyclone/cyclone pairs occurs in conjunction with the eastward development of convection. Both the GLA and UKMO models exhibit a baroclinic structure on intraseasonal time scales. The GLA model is more realistic than the UKMO model at simulating the eastward migration of the anticyclone/cyclone pairs when the convection is active over the western/central Pacific. In the UKMO model, the main heating is located off the equator, which contributes to the irregular structures seen in this model on intraseasonal time scales. The maintenance and initiation of the intraseasonal oscillation has also been investigated. Analysis of the latent heat flux indicates that evaporative wind feedback is not the dominant mechanism for promoting the eastward propagation of the intraseasonal oscillation since evaporation to the west of the convection dominants. The data suggest a wave-CISK (conditional instability of the secondkind) type mechanism, although the contribution by frictional convergence is not apparent. In the GLA model, enhanced evaporation tends to develop in-place over the west Pacific warm pool, while in the UKMO simulation westward propagation of enhanced evaporation is evident. It is suggested that lack of an interactive ocean may be associated with the models systematic failure to simulate the eastward transition of convection from the Indian Ocean into the western Pacific Ocean. This hypothesis is based upon the examination of observed sea surface temperature (SST) and its relationship to the active phase of the intraseasonal oscillation, which indicates that the IO may evolve as a coupled ocean-atmosphere mode. The eastward propagation of convection appears to be related to the gradient of SST, with above normal SST to the east of the convection maintaining the eastward evolution, and decreasing SST near the western portion of the convective envelope being associated with the cessation of convection.
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: During summer 2006, the NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (NAMMA) organized a field campaign in Africa called Special Observation Period (SOP-3), in which scientists in the field were involved in a number of surface network and aircraft measurements. One of the scientific goals of the campaign was to understand the nature and causes for tropical cyclogenesis originating out of African Easterly Waves (AEWs, westward propagating atmospheric disturbances sometimes associated with precursors of hurricanes), and the role that the Saharan Air Layer (SAL, a hot and dry air layer advecting large amounts of dust) can play in the formation or suppression of tropical cyclones. During the NAMMA campaign a high-resolution global model, the NASA GEOS-5, was operationally run by the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office (GMAO) in support to the mission. The daily GEOS-5 forecasts were found to be very useful by decision-making scientists in the field as an aid to discriminate between developing and non-developing AEWs and plan the flight tracks. In the post-event analyses which were performed mostly by the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres, two events were highlighted: a non-developing AEW which appeared to have been suppressed by Saharan air, compared to a developing AEW which was the precursor of hurricane Helene. Both events were successfully predicted by the GEOS-5 during the real-time forecasts provided in support to the mission. In this work it is found that very steep moisture gradients and a strong thermal dipole, with relatively warm air in the mid-troposphere and cool air below, are associated with SAL in both the GEOS-5 forecasts and the NCEP analyses, even at -great distance- from the Sahara. The presence of these unusual thermodynamic features over the Atlantic Ocean, at several thousands of kilometers from the African coastline, is suggestive that SAL mixing is very minimal and that the model's capability of retaining the different properties of air masses during transport are important to represent effectively the role of dry air intrusions in the tropical circulation.
    Keywords: Geophysics
    Type: (ISSN 0094-8276)
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  • 6
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2014-09-16
    Description: Atmospheric teleconnections in the medium to long (10-90 days) time scales focusing on the interactions between extratropical circulation and tropical convection are studied. In a continuing effort to study short-term climate variability and atmospheric teleconnection as inferred from satellite observed outgoing longwave radiation, the low frequency variability (LFB) of tropical and extratropical cloud fluctuation over the Pacific was studied. It was found that during the Northern winter, the LFV of tropical cloud fluctuation is dominated by a 40-50 day dipole-like oscillation linking convection over Indonesia and the equatorial central Pacific. Eastward propagating signals appearing as outbursts of convective cloud clusters originating from the Indian Ocean appear to periodically feed energy into this dipole oscillation. It was also found that there are cloud features appearing over East Asia and subsequently over the eastern North Pacific which vary coherently with the tropical dipole anomaly. Based on analysis and an a priori phenomenological model, it is believed that the cloud fluctuations are associated with two space/time extended normal modes of tropical-extratropical interactions over the Pacific involving a coupling between the tropical dipole convective heating anomaly with cold surges over East Asia, and blocking over the eastern North Pacific respectively.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Global Scale Atmospheric Processes Res. Program Review; p 155-157
    Format: text
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: The operational global analyses from the two major U.S. numerical weather prediction centers, the Navy's Fleet Numerical Oceanography Center and the National Meteorological Center, are used to describe the synoptic-scale features of the 1 Nov. 1992 to 28 Feb. 1993 TOGA COARE intensive observing period (IOP). TOGA COARE is an international field experiment in which a large number of research scientists from the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheres (Code 910) and the Laboratory for Hydrospheres (Code 970) participated. Two high-amplitude intraseasonal (30-60 day) oscillations passed through the TOGA COARE observational network located in the equatorial western Pacific. Associated with the oscillations were two 6-10 day periods of persistent westerly surface winds at the equator or 'westerly wind bursts.' These events are depicted through time series and time-longitude cross sections of divergence/velocity potential, surface winds, precipitation, ocean mixed-layer depth, and sea surface temperature. The high and low frequency components of the flow in which the intraseasonal oscillations were embedded are shown using seasonal, monthly, and 5-day averages of the surface, 850 and 200 mb winds, precipitation, and sea-level pressure, and a time-longitude cross section of tropical cyclone activity. Independent verification of precipitation comes from near real-time satellite estimates, and a reference climatology is given based on 9 years of ECMWF analyses. Daily 00 UTC analyses of surface winds and sea-level pressure for the entire western Pacific and Indian Ocean are provided to trace the evolution of individual synoptic events.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-TM-104593 , REPT-94B00015 , NAS 1.15:104593 , AD-A274627
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Two parallel sets of 10-year long: January 1, 1982 to December 31, 1991, simulations were made with the finite volume General Circulation Model (fvGCM) in which the model integrations were forced with prescribed sea-surface temperature fields (SSTs) available as two separate SST-datasets. One dataset contained naturally varying monthly SSTs for the chosen period, and the oth& had the 12-monthly mean SSTs for the same period. Plots of evaporation, precipitation, and atmosphere-column moisture convergence, binned by l C SST intervals show that except for the tropics, the precipitation is more strongly constrained by large-scale dynamics as opposed to local SST. Binning data by SST naturally provided an ensemble average of data contributed from disparate locations with same SST; such averages could be expected to mitigate all location related influences. However, the plots revealed: i) evaporation, vertical velocity, and precipitation are very robust and remarkably similar for each of the two simulations and even for the data from 1987-ENSO-year simulation; ii) while the evaporation increased monotonically with SST up to about 27 C, the precipitation did not; iii) precipitation correlated much better with the column vertical velocity as opposed to SST suggesting that the influence of dynamical circulation including non-local SSTs is stronger than local-SSTs. The precipitation fields were doubly binned with respect to SST and boundary-layer mass and/or moisture convergence. The analysis discerned the rate of change of precipitation with local SST as a sum of partial derivative of precipitation with local SST plus partial derivative of precipitation with boundary layer moisture convergence multiplied by the rate of change of boundary-layer moisture convergence with SST (see Eqn. 3 of Section 4.5). This analysis is mathematically rigorous as well as provides a quantitative measure of the influence of local SST on the local precipitation. The results were recast to examine the dependence of local rainfall on local SSTs; it was discernible only in the tropics. Our methodology can be used for computing relationship between any forcing function and its effect(s) on a chosen field.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: In this report, we address the intercomparison of precipitation (P), evaporation (E), and surface hydrologic forcing (P-E) for 23 Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) general circulation models (GCM's) including relevant observations, over a variety of spatial and temporal scales. The intercomparison includes global and hemispheric means, latitudinal profiles, selected area means for the tropics and extratropics, ocean and land, respectively. In addition, we have computed anomaly pattern correlations among models and observations for different seasons, harmonic analysis for annual and semiannual cycles, and rain-rate frequency distribution. We also compare the joint influence of temperature and precipitation on local climate using the Koeppen climate classification scheme.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-104617 , NAS 1.15:104617
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-18
    Description: The South China Sea Monsoon Experiment (SCSMEX) was conducted in May-June 1998. One of its major objectives is to better understand the key physical processes for the onset and evolution of the summer monsoon over Southeast Asia and southern China. Multiple observation platforms (e.g., upper-air soundings, Doppler radar, ships, wind profilers, radiometers, etc.) during SCSMEX provided a first attempt at investigating the detailed characteristics of convection and circulation changes associated with monsoons over the South China Sea region. SCSMEX also provided precipitation derived from atmospheric budgets and comparison to those obtained from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). In this paper, a regional scale model (with grid size of 20 km) and Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model (with 1 km grid size) are used to perform multi-day integration to understand the precipitation processes associated with the summer monsoon over Southeast Asia and southern China. The regional climate model is used to understand the soil-precipitation interaction and feedback associated with a flood event that occurred in and around China's Yantz River during SCSMEX Sensitivity tests on various land surface models, sea surface temperature (SST) variations, and cloud processes are performed to understand the precipitation processes associated with the onset of the monsoon over the S. China Sea during SCSMEX. These tests have indicated that the land surface model has a major impact on the circulation over the S. China Sea. Cloud processes can effect the precipitation pattern while SST variation can effect the precipitation amounts over both land and ocean. The exact location (region) of the flooding can be effected by the soil-rainfall feedback. The GCE-model results captured many observed precipitation characteristics because it used a fine grid size. For example, the model simulated rainfall temporal variation compared quite well to the sounding-estimated rainfall. The results show there are more latent heat fluxes prior to the onset of the monsoon. However, more rainfall was simulated after the onset of the monsoon. This modeling study indicates the latent heat fluxes (or evaporation) have more of an impact on precipitation processes and rainfall in the regional climate model simulations than in the cloud-resolving model simulations. Research is underway to determine if the difference in the grid sizes or the moist processes used in these two models is responsible for the differing influence of surface fluxes an precipitation processes.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: National Central University; 1-9 Jun. 2002; Chung-Li; Taiwan, Province of China
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