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  • 1
    Call number: 9/M 07.0421(405)
    In: Geological Society special publication
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 406 S. : farb. Ill., graph. Darst., Kt.
    ISBN: 9781862396586
    Series Statement: Geological Society special publication 405
    Classification: A.3.4.
    Location: Reading room
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1437-3262
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Description / Table of Contents: Abstract The retrograde P-T-t path of intermediate and high-temperature eclogites (T ≥ 500 ± 50°C) is characterized by the transformation of omphacite into a symplectitic intergrowth of clinopyroxene and plagioclase lamellae. Often, this symplectite shows a two stage microstructural evolution, i.e. a coarse lamellar width symplectite, »S1«, followed by a thinner lamellar width symplectite, »S2«. Each symplectite may also evolve independently into a final globular microstructure, »SG«. According to metallurgical concepts, the phase transition »omphacite → clinopyroxene + plagioclase« is classified as a discontinuous precipitation reaction. In discontinuous precipitation reactions, the lamellar spacing (L) depends on temperature (T) according to the growth law log (L) = A-B/T, in which A and B are constants. Therefore thin symplectites characterize low temperatures, where-as coarse symplectites characterize higher temperatures. In order of specify the thermal evolution of continental collision zones, the reliability of the discontinuous precipitation growth law has been tested on eclogites showing contrasted retrograde P-T-t histories in different geological environments, i.e. Alpine, Caledonian and Variscan Belts. Indeed, our investigations reveal that the clinopyroxene/plagioclase symplectite can be used as a potential geothermobarometer in eclogites recording temperatures above 500 ± 50°C. The temperature is obtained by the lamellar spacing and pressure by the Jadeite content of the symplectite clinopyroxene in the presence of plagioclase and quartz.
    Abstract: Résumé La déstabilisation de l'omphacite, en une symplectite à alternance de lamelles de clinopyroxène et de plagioclase, caractérise l'initiation du trajet rétrograde P-T-t pour les éclogites de température ≥ 500 ± 50°C. Cette symplectite présente parfois une évolution microstructurale depuis une symplectite grossière à alternance de lamelles larges, »S1«, relayée par une symplectite à alternance de lamelles fines, »S2«. Chaque symplectite peut aussi évoluer indépendemment en une microstructure globulaire tardive, »Sg«. En accord avec les concepts établis par les métallurgistes, la transformation »omphacite → clinopyroxène + plagioclase« est une précipitation discontinue. Pour ce type de transformation, l'espace interlamellaire (L) dépend de la température (T) selon la loi de croissance Log (L) =A-B/T (*), où A et B sont des constantes. Ainsi, une symplectite fine (de type S2) caractérise des températures relativement plus basses qu'une symplectite grossière (de type S1). Afin de préciser l'évolution thermique des zones de collision continentale, nous avons testé la loi de croissance (*) sur des éclogites échantillonnées dans divers contextes géologiques (chaînes alpine, calédonide et varisque), présentant des trajets rétrogrades P-T-t contrastés. Les résultats montrent que la symplectite à clinopyroxène/plagioclase représente un géothermobaromètre potentiel de la rétromorphose des éclogites: la taille de l'espace interlamellaire dépend de la température et la teneur en jadéite des lamelles de clinopyroxène, en présence de quartz et à l'équilibre avec le plagioclase, dépend de la pression.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Der retrograde P-T-t Pfad von intermediären und hochtemperierten Eklogiten (T ≥ 500 ±50°C) ist charakterisiert durch die Umformung von Omphazit in symplektitische Verwachsungen von Klinopyroxen und Plagioklas-Lamellen. Häufig zeigt dieser Symplektit eine zweiphasige mikrostrukturelle Entwicklung, das heißt, ein Symplektit mit breiten Lamellen »S1« wird gefolgt von einem Symplektit mit dünneren Lamellen »2«. Jeder Symplektittyp kann sich schließlich selbständig zu einer kugelförmigen MikroStruktur »SG« entwikkeln. Auf Grund von metallurgischen Vorstellungen wir die Phasenumwandlung Omphazit zu Klinopyroxen + Plagioklas als diskontinuierliche Ausfällungsreaktion klassifiziert. In diskontinuierlichen Ausfällungsreaktionen hängt der Lamellenabstand (L) von der Temperatur (T) nach dem Wachstumsgesetz log (L) = A-B/T ab, in dem A und B Konstanten sind. Daher zeigen dünne Symplektite niedrige Temperaturen an, während breite Symplektite höhere Temperaturen anzeigen. Um die thermische Entwicklung von kontinentalen Kollisionszonen zu spezifizieren mußte die Zuververlässigkeit des diskontinuierlichen Ausfällungswachstumsgesetz an Eklogiten getestet werden, die unterschiedlich retrograde P-T-t Geschichten aus verschieden Umgebungen zeigen; das heißt aus alpinen, kaledonischen und variszischen Gebirgszügen. Tatsächlich offenbaren unsere Bemühungen, daß der Klinopyroxen/Plagioklas Symplektit als potentielles Geothermobarometer in Eklogiten benutzt werden kann, die Temperaturen über 500°C ± 50°C erfahren haben. Die Temperatur kann man aus dem Lamellenabstand erhalten; den Druck durch den Jadeitgehalt des symplektitischen Pyroxens, in Anwesenheit von Plagioklas und Quarz.
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-11-01
    Description: The Roquebrune-Cap Martin basin (RCMB), developed along the eastern rim of the Nice arc, represents an exclusive sedimentary marker constraining the timing of the deformation in the Nice arc (southern Subalpine chain) during Miocene times. Structural and sedimentological analyses as well as 3D geometrical modeling of the RCMB revealed morphological, structural and sedimentological features characterizing an active tectonic control of the sedimentary infills and the basin development. Structural and microstructural analyses along the eastern boundary of the Nice arc evidenced a N-S left-lateral strike-slip ‘en echelon’ faults system named Mont Gros-St Agnès Castillon relayed by the Biancon E-W thrusts and sheets. The formation of the RCMB appears to be genetically linked to these strike-slip ‘en échelon’ faults. Such characteristics include the presence of the Mont Gros strike-slip fault structural high relief bounding the RCMB to the West, the West-East asymmetry of the sedimentary infill with a laterally transition facies from breccias directly below the fault relief to conglomerates and sandstones in the central part of the basin and the presence of mass wasting in all structural levels of the basin. The onset and the evolution of the basin were driven by transpresssive tectonics, generating a deep and narrow tectonic depression, bounded by steep tectonically controlled slopes. The transpresssive character of the eastern Nice arc boundary where the syn-tectonic RCMB is hosted, accommodate a general southward translation of the Nice arc in response to a N-S shortening regime. The sedimentological and previous paleontological analyses suggest that the activity of the eastern Nice arc transpresssive boundary generating the RCMB and thus the southward motion of the Nice arc, started during the Early Miocene (Aquitanian), continuing through the Late Miocene (Tortonian). The style and the timing of the syn-sedimentary deformation of the Nice arc is coherent in space and time with the one affecting the Digne and Castellane arc.
    Print ISSN: 0037-9409
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 1991-06-01
    Description: The retrograde P-T-t path of intermediate and high-temperature eclogites (T ≥ 500 ± 50°C) is characterized by the transformation of omphacite into a symplectitic intergrowth of clinopyroxene and plagioclase lamellae. Often, this symplectite shows a two stage microstructural evolution, i.e. a coarse lamellar width symplectite, »S1«, followed by a thinner lamellar width symplectite, »S2«. Each symplectite may also evolve independently into a final globular microstructure, »SG«. According to metallurgical concepts, the phase transition »omphacite → clinopyroxene + plagioclase« is classified as a discontinuous precipitation reaction. In discontinuous precipitation reactions, the lamellar spacing (L) depends on temperature (T) according to the growth law log (L) = A-B/T, in which A and B are constants. Therefore thin symplectites characterize low temperatures, where-as coarse symplectites characterize higher temperatures. In order of specify the thermal evolution of continental collision zones, the reliability of the discontinuous precipitation growth law has been tested on eclogites showing contrasted retrograde P-T-t histories in different geological environments, i.e. Alpine, Caledonian and Variscan Belts. Indeed, our investigations reveal that the clinopyroxene/plagioclase symplectite can be used as a potential geothermobarometer in eclogites recording temperatures above 500 ± 50°C. The temperature is obtained by the lamellar spacing and pressure by the Jadeite content of the symplectite clinopyroxene in the presence of plagioclase and quartz.ZusammenfassungDer retrograde P-T-t Pfad von intermediären und hochtemperierten Eklogiten (T ≥ 500 ±50°C) ist charakterisiert durch die Umformung von Omphazit in symplektitische Verwachsungen von Klinopyroxen und Plagioklas-Lamellen. Häufig zeigt dieser Symplektit eine zweiphasige mikrostrukturelle Entwicklung, das heißt, ein Symplektit mit breiten Lamellen »S1« wird gefolgt von einem Symplektit mit dünneren Lamellen »2«. Jeder Symplektittyp kann sich schließlich selbständig zu einer kugelförmigen MikroStruktur »SG« entwikkeln. Auf Grund von metallurgischen Vorstellungen wir die Phasenumwandlung Omphazit zu Klinopyroxen + Plagioklas als diskontinuierliche Ausfällungsreaktion klassifiziert. In diskontinuierlichen Ausfällungsreaktionen hängt der Lamellenabstand (L) von der Temperatur (T) nach dem Wachstumsgesetz log (L) = A-B/T ab, in dem A und B Konstanten sind. Daher zeigen dünne Symplektite niedrige Temperaturen an, während breite Symplektite höhere Temperaturen anzeigen. Um die thermische Entwicklung von kontinentalen Kollisionszonen zu spezifizieren mußte die Zuververlässigkeit des diskontinuierlichen Ausfällungswachstumsgesetz an Eklogiten getestet werden, die unterschiedlich retrograde P-T-t Geschichten aus verschieden Umgebungen zeigen; das heißt aus alpinen, kaledonischen und variszischen Gebirgszügen. Tatsächlich offenbaren unsere Bemühungen, daß der Klinopyroxen/Plagioklas Symplektit als potentielles Geothermobarometer in Eklogiten benutzt werden kann, die Temperaturen über 500°C ± 50°C erfahren haben. Die Temperatur kann man aus dem Lamellenabstand erhalten; den Druck durch den Jadeitgehalt des symplektitischen Pyroxens, in Anwesenheit von Plagioklas und Quarz.RésuméLa déstabilisation de l'omphacite, en une symplectite à alternance de lamelles de clinopyroxène et de plagioclase, caractérise l'initiation du trajet rétrograde P-T-t pour les éclogites de température ≥ 500 ± 50°C. Cette symplectite présente parfois une évolution microstructurale depuis une symplectite grossière à alternance de lamelles larges, »S1«, relayée par une symplectite à alternance de lamelles fines, »S2«. Chaque symplectite peut aussi évoluer indépendemment en une microstructure globulaire tardive, »Sg«. En accord avec les concepts établis par les métallurgistes, la transformation »omphacite → clinopyroxène + plagioclase« est une précipitation discontinue. Pour ce type de transformation, l'espace interlamellaire (L) dépend de la température (T) selon la loi de croissance Log (L) =A-B/T (*), où A et B sont des constantes. Ainsi, une symplectite fine (de type S2) caractérise des températures relativement plus basses qu'une symplectite grossière (de type S1). Afin de préciser l'évolution thermique des zones de collision continentale, nous avons testé la loi de croissance (*) sur des éclogites échantillonnées dans divers contextes géologiques (chaînes alpine, calédonide et varisque), présentant des trajets rétrogrades P-T-t contrastés. Les résultats montrent que la symplectite à clinopyroxène/plagioclase représente un géothermobaromètre potentiel de la rétromorphose des éclogites: la taille de l'espace interlamellaire dépend de la température et la teneur en jadéite des lamelles de clinopyroxène, en présence de quartz et à l'équilibre avec le plagioclase, dépend de la pression.Краткое содержаниеРетроградное термоб арометрическое разв итие средних и высокотемп ературных эклогитов характеризуется пре образованием омфаци та в симплектитических с ращениях клинопирок сена и пластинок плагиокл аза. Этот симплектит проявляет чаще всего двуфазовое развитие микроструктуры, т.е. за симплектитом, имеющи м широкие пластины «S 1», с ледуют симплектиты из тонки х пластинок «S 2». Кажда я их этих типов может пр еобразовываться сам остоятельно в шарообразные микро структуры «SG». С точки зрения металл ургических представ лений это фазовое преобраз ование омфацита в клинопироксен и пла гиоклаз рассматрива ют, как прерывистую реак цию осаждения. При так их реакциях расстояние между пластинками (L) зависит от температу ры (Т) — согласно закону роста кристаллов — log (L) = А- В/Т, причем А и В являются к онстантными величин ами. Поэтому тонкие сипле ктиты указывают на низкую температур у, а широкие на высокую. Чтобы специфицировать тер мическое развитие зон коллизи й материков, необходи мо точно проверить зако н прерывистой реакци и осаждения эклогитов, которые в различном окружении имеют и раз личную термобаромет рическую историю, напр.: в альпий ских, каледонских и варисских горных це пях. Действительно, при этих исследовани ях установили, что симплектиты из кл инопироксена/плагио клаза можно рассматривать, как потенциальные геотермобарометры в эклогитах, претерпев ших влияние температур с выше 500°С + 50°С. Температуру можно оп ределить по расстоян ию между пластинками, да вление — по содержани ю жадеита в симплектит ных пироксенах, где присутствуют еще плагиоклаз и кварц. ©1991 Ferdinand Enke Verlag Stuttgart
    Print ISSN: 1437-3254
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2006-11-01
    Description: During the Oligocene, in the central western Alps, tectonic accretion of the external domain to the internal orogenic wedge along the Briançonnais frontal thrust (BFT) was followed by backfolding, resulting in the Alpine fanning structure. The Briançonnais fan axis was rapidly exhumed by erosion. This growing wedge at the scale of the entire Alpine structure was a short-lived situation that ended with the onset of extension in its internal part, before the end Oligocene. To the east, in the Queyras Piedmont Schistes lustrés, extension in ductile then brittle conditions accommodated the tectonic denudation of the Dora-Maira crystalline massif below the Monviso ophiolites, themselves exhumed below the Queyras Schistes lustrés. Consistently, the final cooling of these Schistes lustrés becomes younger eastwards during the Miocene. To the west, inversion of the BFT was directly associated with dense normal faulting in the Briançonnais-Piedmont nappe stack. Local reactivation of thrust surfaces resulted in spectacular trains of tilted blocks oriented parallel and normal to the orogen. When considered at the scale of the entire internal zones, the brittle extension developed during the Neogene globally displays a multitrend character. It is a close to radial spreading that strongly suggests the gravitational collapse of an overthickened crust. Extensional movement along the BFT and multitrend normal faulting in its hangingwall continue at present, resulting in shallow depth seismic activity. From the Neogene onwards, the Alpine structure underwent contrasting tectonic regimes. Extension limited the growth of the internal wedge or accompanied its thinning at least in its upper part. Concurrently the external wedge continued growing through successive folding-thrusting phases.
    Print ISSN: 0037-9409
    Electronic ISSN: 1777-5817
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2014-05-01
    Description: In this paper we review and discuss, in a synthetic historical way, the main results obtained on Variscan metamorphism in the French Massif Central. First, we describe the pre-orogenic architecture of the French Massif Central on the base of available lithostratigraphic and geochemical constraints. Second, we portray the progressive metamorphic evolution through time and space with the presentation of 6 metamorphic maps corresponding to critical orogenic periods, namely 430–400 Ma, 400–370 Ma, 370–360 Ma, 360–345 Ma, 340–325 Ma and 320–290 Ma. We discuss the role of multiple subductions in orogeny, the metamorphic effects of continental collision (i.e. regional development of intermediate-pressure metamorphic series) as well as the links between post-thickening tectonics and the regional development of low-pressure metamorphic series coeval with crustal partial melting. As it was the case for the western Alps, we emphasize the lack of temporal data on high-pressure/low-temperature metamorphic rocks as well as the uncertainties on the sizes of rock units that have recorded the same metamorphic history (i.e. coherent P-T-t/deformation trajectories). Finally, we underline the main differences and similarities between the metamorphic evolutions of the western Alps and the French Massif Central.
    Print ISSN: 0037-9409
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-01-01
    Description: In this paper, we provide the first structural map of Les Saintes archipelago (Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles). The finite strain pattern displays four families of fault systems characterized by their statistical structural orientations: N000-N020, N050-N070, N090-N110 and N130-N140 trending fault systems. Our onshore results thus underline a fault network much more complex than the one depicted by the previous offshore geophysical investigations around Les Saintes archipelago, which show only N120-N150 trending system. According to the available K-Ar dating of the volcanic rocks and the relative chronology of the faults defined in the field, we determine the deformation history in Les Saintes islands since the last 3 Ma. The four highlighted trending fault systems are already active since the Pliocene and are consistent with the present-day extensional tectonics in the Guadeloupe archipelago compatible with the reactivation of inherited structures at the active arc scale. We interpret the tectonic evolution of Les Saintes islands as the result of interplay between subduction of aseismic ridges (Tiburon and Barracuda ridges) and oblique convergence. Furthermore, we recognized an exhumed geothermal paleo-system in Terre-de-Haut island which is a good analogue of the present-day active Bouillante geothermal system. Its duration is estimated at 400 k.y. during the Pliocene.
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-03-01
    Description: Publication of this special volume of the Bulletin de la Société géologique de France, dedicated to the evolution of the southern segment of the European Variscan chain, is an opportunity for the French community of Geosciences to pay a friendly honoring tribute to Philippe Rossi, a tireless promoter of geology within the important institution that is the Bureau de Recherches Géologiques et Minières (BRGM). After his secondary studies at the Lycée J.B. Corot in Savigny-sur-Orge, Philippe Rossi discovered geology at the Université Paris-Sud (Orsay), where he defended in 1975 a Doctorat thesis entitled: “ Géologie et gîtologie du Cerro San Cristobal Logrosan, Caceres, Espagne”. In the wake of his thesis, Philippe joined the BRGM where he went, from the 1980s, to play a prominent role as both a geologist specialist of the Variscan chain in Europe, and a key player of the evolution and accomplishment of the French mapping program (Programme de la Carte Géologique de la France). First of all, Philippe is recognized in our community as a researcher enthusiast about the petrologic and geodynamic evolution of the European Variscan chain. In 1986, he defended a Doctorat d’Etat thesis at the Université P. Sabatier (Toulouse) entitled: “ Organisation et genèse d’un grand batholite orogénique : le batholite calco-alcalin de la Corse ”. In parallel, Philippe has led the cartographic synthesis of Corsica at 1/250 000 published in 1980, and was involved in the survey of 7 geological maps at 1/50 000 in Corsica, to be published between 1984 and 2012. In 2009, he and his colleagues published a remarkable synthesis of the Corso-Sardinian segment of the Variscan chain, updated in 2014 with regard to the place of Corsica in the Variscan “puzzle”. This work conducted in collaboration with A. Cocherie within the BRGM, but also with many French and …
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  • 9
  • 10
    Publication Date: 2001-01-01
    Description: In the western Alps, to the southeast of the Pelvoux massif (Champsaur-Embrunais-Brianconnais-Queyras transect), the Brianconnais zone consists of the southern tip of the Zone Houillere and small nappes of Mesozoic sediments, emplaced during the Eocene in HP-LT metamorphic conditions. During the Oligocene this tectonic pile was thrusted onto a late Eocene to early Oligocene flexural basin, deformed in low grade metamorphic conditions and belonging to the Ultradauphine zone. This major thrust, called here CBF [Chevauchement Brianconnais Frontal: Tricart 1986] represents the boundary between the external and the internal zones of the western Alps. It contains thin tectonic lenses of Subbrianconnais origin, so that the Brianconnais Front and the Penninic Front almost merge. Late Alpine extension. - We have recently discovered that the CBF was subsequently reactivated as an extensional detachment. This major negative inversion is associated with widespread extension in the internal (Brianconnais and Piemont) zones, resulting in multiscale normal faulting. Current field work in the Queyras area shows that this brittle multitrend extension is a continuation of the ductile extension that accompanied the exhumation of blue-schist bearing metamorphic units. Along the same transect, the external (Ultradauphine) zone was not affected by late-Alpine extension. This is still the present situation: to the east of the aseismic Pelvoux massif, the CBF bounds the Brianconnais seismic arc, the activity of which may be the continuation of the late-Alpine extension. At the scale of the western Alpine arc, active extensional-transtensional tectonics dominate in the internal zones while compressional uplift affects the external zone. In this contrasted stress field, the thrust-fault zone between internal and external arcs plays a major role of decoupling that can be demonstrated in several sites between the area analysed here and the Central Alps, including along the Ecors profile. Contribution of thermochronology. - In this paper, we compare apatite fission track (FT) ages from both sides of the inverted CBF to the southeast of the Pelvoux massif. In the hangingwall of the CBF, two ages were obtained from magmatic intrusions within the Zone houillere, close to Briancon. They are compared to recently published ages from the Champsaur Sandstones unit in the footwall of the CBF, along the same transect.
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