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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0967
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Metasediments in the Tso Morari area (Ladakh, Himalaya) provide new insights into the Higher Himalayan metamorphism in the northwestern part of the Himalayan belt. Whole-rock analyses and petrologic observations show that the metasediments correspond to Fe-rich metapelites, Mg-rich metapelites, intermediate metapelites and metagreywackes of the Indian continental margin. Jadeite + chloritoid + paragonite + garnet in the Fe-rich metapelites indicate pressures of 20 ±2 kbar at temperatures of 550 ±50 °C according to major element partitioning thermobarometry, stability fields of minerals and Thermocalc P-T estimates. These results are consistent with P-T estimates on other metasediments and with the occurrence of eclogites. Subsequent retrogression at the eclogite-blueschist facies transition (from 18 to 13 kbar and 540 ±50 °C) was followed by an increase in temperature to 630 ±30 °C at amphibolite facies conditions. The metamorphic evolution is related to subduction of the Indian continental margin beneath the southern Asian margin at the onset of the Indian-Eurasian collision.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] It remains controversial whether burial and exhumation in mountain belts represent episodic or continuous processes. Regional patterns of crystallization and closure ages of high-pressure rocks may help to discriminate one mode from the other but, unfortunately, metamorphic geochronology ...
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1525-1314
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Garnet lherzolite from the Lyonnais area (eastern French Massif Central) occurs as several lenses elongated within the regional foliation of garnet-biotite-sillimanite gneisses. Within the peridotites a mylonitic foliation can be observed which clearly is oblique to the regional foliation of the surrounding gneisses. Petrological and thermobarometric studies emphasize a tectonometamorphic re-equilibration for both crustal and mantle rocks characterized by a prograde metamorphic stage followed by retrograde evolution. During the burial stage, interpreted as lithospheric subduction, the peridotites underwent their mylonitic deformation, under high-pressure conditions (23–30 kbar). In contrast, the paragneisses have suffered their deformation during the retromorphic evolution under mesozonal conditions (6–8 kbar, 700°C). Our thermobarometric investigations allow us to interpret the granulitic/ultramafic association from the Monts du Lyonnais area as a lithospheric section buried into a Palaeozoic subduction zone, laminated during continental collision and uplifted by erosion processes.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1525-1314
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: High-pressure (HP) metabasites from the Sancti Spiritus dome (Escambray massif, Central Cuba) have been studied in order to better understand the origin and evolution of the Northern Caribbean boundary plate during the Cretaceous, in a global subduction context. Geochemical and petrological studies of these eclogites reveal two groups with contrasting origins and pre-subduction metamorphic histories. Eclogites collected from exotic blocks within serpentinite (mélange zone) originated from a N-MORB type protolith, do not record pre-eclogitic metamorphic history. Conversely eclogites intercalated in Jurassic metasedimentary rocks (non-mélange zone) have a calc-alkaline arc-like origin and yield evidence for a pre-subduction metamorphic event in the amphibolite facies. However, all the studied Escambray eclogites underwent the same eclogitic peak (around 600 °C at 16 kbar), and followed a cold thermal gradient during their exhumation (estimated at around 13.5 °C km−1), which can suggest that this exhumation was coeval with subduction. Concordant geochronological data (Rb/Sr and Ar/Ar) support that the main exhumation of HP/LT rocks from the Sancti Spiritus dome occurred at 70 Ma by top to SW thrusting. The retrograde trajectory of these rocks suggests that the north-east subduction of the Farallon plate continued after 70 Ma. The set-off to the exhumation can be correlated with the beginning of the collision between the Bahamas platform and the Cretaceous island arc that induced a change of the subduction kinematics. The contrasting origin and ante-subduction history of the analysed samples imply that the Escambray massif consists of different geological units that evolved in different environments before their amalgamation during exhumation to form the present unit III of the massif.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1525-1314
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: The Sesia zone (Italian Western Alps) offers one of the best preserved examples of pre-Alpine basement reactivated, under eclogite facies conditions, during the Alpine orogenesis. A detailed mineralogical study of eclogitized acid and basic granulites, and related amphibolites, is presented. In these rare weak to undeformed rocks microstructural investigations allow three main metamorphic stages to be distinguished.(a) A medium- to low-P granulite stage giving rise to the development of orthopyroxene + garnet + plagioclase + brown amphibole + ilmenite ± biotite in basic granulites and garnet + K-feldspar + plagioclase + cordierite + sillimanite + biotite + ilmenite in acid granulites.(b) A post-granulite re-equilibration, associated with the development of shear zones, producing discrete amphibolitization of the basic granulites and widespread development of biotite + sillimanite + cordierite + spinel in the acid rocks.(c) An eo-Alpine eclogite stage giving rise to the crystallization of high-P and low-T assemblages.In an effort to quantify this evolution, independent well-calibrated thermobarometers were applied to basic and acid rocks. For the granulite event, P-T estimates are 7–9 kbar and 700–800° C, and for subsequent retrograde evolution, P-T was 4–5 kbar and 600° C. For the eo-Alpine eclogite metamorphism, pressure and temperature conditions were 14–16 kbar and 550° C.The inferred P-T path is consistent with an uplift of continental crust produced by crustal thinning prior to the subduction of the continental rocks. In the light of the available geochronological constraints we propose to relate the pre-Alpine granulite and post-granulite retrograde evolution to the Permo-Jurassic extensional regime. The complex granulite-eclogite transition is thus regarded as a record of the opening and of the closure of the Piedmont ocean.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-2021
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract A TEM investigation of amphibole development in granulitic metagabbros is presented. Three different sites of amphibole nucleation and growth are observed: (i) in the clinopyroxene-plagioclase interphase boundaries, corresponding to a reconstructive transformation involving intercrystalline diffusion; (ii) along pyroxene fractures, with competition between inter- and intracrystalline diffusion; (iii) within the pyroxene crystals, through a topotactic conversion, controlled by intracrystalline diffusion. These different reaction sites are studied in order to discuss some aspects of reaction mechanisms within undeformed metamorphic rocks, putting into balance intracrystalline versus intercrystalline processes. According to the possible paths (crystal lattice and its defects, fractures and mineral interfaces), contrasted amounts of reaction products, together with different amphibole compositions are evidenced. These results indicate that the diffusion rate of Al, Fe, Mg and OH is the rate controlling factor for amphibole-forming reaction.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1437-3262
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Description / Table of Contents: Abstract A regional comparison of retrograde PTt paths of high pressure metamorphic terrains in the Scandinavian Caledonides (Seve Nappe Complex (S.N.C.)) and the French Massif Central (F.M.C.) reveals the following similarities: physical conditions of eclogite formation are roughly identical (600–780°C / 13.5–16.5 Kb), dominantly isothermal decompression. However in detail two major differences have been recognized: 1- In the S.N.C., PT estimates of eclogite formation are constant within individual tectonic lenses but vary when different tectonic lenses are compared. During uplift these temperature differences are maintained and diminish only at the final stages of the uplift history; 2- In the F.M.C. the physical conditions of eclogite formation are relatively constant (700–750°C/15Kb) but discrepancies in temperature (〉 100°C) appear during the first stages of the uplift history if one compares eastern with western domains. A thermal analytical model allows to explain these facts. In the S.N.C. the initial temperature difference during eclogite formation is related to various depths of burial. In the F.M.C. diachronic nappe stacking occurs implying a more pronounced screen effect in western than in eastern domains of the F.M.C. This also accounts for the initial retrogression under low- to middle amphibolite facies conditions in the west and granulite facies conditions in the east. Moreover from radiometric and structural data, we can see that all the uplift history of the S.N.C. is assisted by tectonic processes, while in the F.M.C., after the nappe pile was constructed, the uplift history is essentially controlled by erosional and/or isostatic processes.
    Abstract: Résumé La comparaison des évolutions rétromorphiques PTt des nappes de haute pression des Calédonides Scandinaves (Complexe des Nappes de Seve — S.N.C.) et du Massif Central français (F.M.C.) révèle les similarités suivantes: les conditions intensives du métamorphisme éclogitique sont très voisines (600–780°C/13.5–16.5 Kbar), suivi globalement d'une décompression isotherme. Cependant en détail, des différences majeures ont été reconnues: 1- Dans le S.N.C., les estimations PT de la formation des éclogites sont constantes au sein d'une même unité, mais varient quand cellesci sont comparées. Pendant la remontée, ces différences sont maintenues et ne diminuent que lors des stades terminaux; 2- Dans le F.M.C., les conditions intensives du métamorphisme de haute pression sont relativement homogènes (700–750°C/15 Kbar), mais des différences de température (〉 100°C) apparaissent pendant les premiers stades de la remontée entre les domaines occidentaux et orientaux. Une modélisation thermique de type analytique permet d'expliquer ces faits. Dans le S.N.C., la différence initiale de température pendant la formation des éclogites est liée à des profondeurs d'enfouissement variées. Dans le F.M.C., il existe un diachronisme lors de la mise en place des nappes, impliquant un effet d'écran plus prononcé à l'ouest qu'à l'est. Il rend également compte de la rétromorphose des assemblages de haute pression dans les conditions du faciès amphibolite à l'ouest et du faciès granulite à l'est du F.M.C. De plus, à partir des données radiométriques et structurales, on constate que l'ensemble de l'histoire de la remontée du S.N.C. est assistée par des processus tectoniques, alors que dans le F.M.C., une fois la pile tectonique constituée, sa remontée est essentiellement contrôlée par les mécanismes de l'érosion et ceux de l'isostasie.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Ein regionaler Vergleich von PTt Pfaden von hochdruckbeanspruchten Gebieten in den skandinavischen Kaledoniden (Seve Nappe Complex (S.N.C.)) und dem französischen Zentralmassif (F.M.C.) zeigen folgende Ähnlichkeiten: Die physikalischen Bedingungen während der Eklogitbildung waren ungefähr identisch (600–780°C/ 13,5–16,5 kb), hauptsächlich isothermale Dekompression. Trotzdem werden zwei Hauptunterschiede beobachtet: 1- In den S.N.C. sind PT-Schätzungen der Eklogitbildung gleich in individuellen tektonischen Linsen; varriieren aber beim Vergleich verschiedener tektonischer Linsen. Während des Heraushebens wurden diese Temperaturunterschiede aufrechterhalten und verminderten sich nur in den letzten Stadien der Heraushebungsgeschichte. 2- In dem F.M.C. sind die physikalischen Bedingungen der Eklogitbildung relativ konstant (700–750°C/15 kb), aber es treten Temperaturdiskrepanzen (〉 100°C) während der ersten Heraushebungsstadien auf, wenn man die westlichen mit den östlichen Bereichen vergleicht. Ein thermales analytisches Modell erlaubt es diese Fakten zu erklären. In den S.N.C. ist die initiale Temperaturdifferenz während der Eklogitbildung mit verschiedenen Versenkungstiefen in Verbindung zu bringen. In dem F.M.C. erfolgte eine diachrone Deckenstapelung, dies bewirkte einen stärker betonten Abschirmeffekt in den westlichen Bereichen des F.M.C als in den östlichen. Der initiale Rückgang von niedriggradigen zu hochgradigen Amphibolitfaziesbedingungen im Westen und Granulitfaziesbedingungen im Osten legen hierüber Rechenschaft ab. Darüber hinaus können wir aus den radiometrischen und tektonischen Daten ersehen, daß die gesamte Hebungsgeschichte des S.N.C. von tektonischen Prozessen unterstützt wurde, während im F.M.C. die Hebungsgeschichte maßgeblich von erosiven und/oder isostatischen Prozessen kontrolliert wurde, nachdem die Dekkenstapelung beendet war.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1437-3262
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Description / Table of Contents: Abstract The entire pile of nappes in the eastern margin of the Bohemian massif is characterized by two stages of Variscan nappe emplacement each exhibiting a different kinematic and metamorphic evolution. The older emplacement (D1) probably occurred around 350-340 Ma ago and was synmetamorphic. The nappes show a typical systematic superposition of higher grade metamorphic units over lower grade ones. Thus, the crystalline complexes showing a HT-MP Barrovian imprint (Svratka allochthonous unit and Moldanubicum) were thrust over an intermediate unit affected by MTMP recrystallization (Bíteš orthogneiss and its country rock), and at the base of the D1 nappe pile the Inner Phyllite Nappe (Biý Potok Unit) is characterized by LT/LP metamorphism. The second stage of tectonic evolution (D2) is characterized by a thin-skinned northward-oriented nappe emplacement that occurred under LT-LP conditions dated at 320-310 Ma. The whole nappe sequence formed during the first tectonometamorphic period (D1) was transported northward over the autochthonous »Deblín polymetamorphic and granitic complex« of Upper Proterozoic age and its Devonian sedimentary cover with very low metamorphism. During this second tectonic event the Brno granite massif (580 Ma) was only marginally incorporated in the Variscan nappe tectonics which resulted in kilometer-scale cover and basement duplexes. The tectonic evolution of the nappe pile ended with stage D3, represented by large- to medium-scale east-vergent folds with limited displacement.
    Abstract: Résumé L'empilement des nappes a la bordure orientale du Massif de Bohème est caractérisé par deux stades de mise en place présentant différentes évolutions cinématiques et métamorphiques. La tectonique majeure de mise en place des nappes crustales intervient lors d'un métamorphisme de type barrowien, calé autour de 350-340 Ma. L'empilement qui en résulte montre une superposition systématique d'unités à fort degré de métamorphisme sur des unités moins métamorphiques. Ainsi les complexes cristallins, montrant des reliques de métamorphisme de haute à moyenne pression-haute température (unités cristallines de Svratka et du Moldanubien), chevauchent une unité intermédiaire affectée par un métamorphisme de moyenne à basse pression-moyenne température (l'orthogneiss de Bíteš et son encaissant). A la base de cette pile édifiée durant la tectonique D1, l'unité des phyllites internes (unité de Bílý potok) est caractérisée par un métamorphisme de basse témperature-basse pression. Le second stade D2 de l'évolution tectonique est caractérisé par une tectonique pelliculaire à vergence nord datée à 320-310 Ma. L'empilement résultant de D1 est ainsi transporté vers le nord, au dessus du complexe autochtone d'âge protérozoïque supérieur (groupe de Deblín) et sa couverture sédimentaire dévonienne très faiblement métamorphisée. Le massif granitique de Brno (580 Ma) n'est que marginalement incorporé à cette tectonique de nappe varisque. Ceci se traduit par des duplex socle-couverture d'échelle plurikilométrique. L'évolution tectonique s'achève lors d'une troisième phase, marquée par de grands plis à vergence est. Le déplacement associé est alors d'amplitude limitée.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Der Deckenbau am Ostrand der Böhmischen Masse erfolgte in zwei aufeinanderfolgenden Stadien, die sich sowohl in ihrer Kinematik als auch in ihrer Metamorphoseentwicklung deutlich voneinander unterschieden. Die ältere Phase (D1 ca. 350-340 Ma) ist durch synmetamorphe Überschiebungen charakterisiert. Sie führt zu einer metamorphen Inversion der überschobenen Deckeneinheiten, so daß generell hohe metamorphe Einheiten schwach metamorphe tektonisch überlagern. Der Svratka Komplex und das Moldanubikum als hangendste Decken sind durch MP/HT Paragenesen vom Barrow-Typ gekennzeichnet. Beide Einheiten sind auf den MP/MT-metamorphen Biteš-Gneis und seine Rahmengesteine überschoben. Die Bílý potok Einheit als liegende Decke zeigt nur noch eine LP/ LT Regionalmetamorphose. Das jüngere Stadium (D2 ca. 320-310 Ma) ist durch eine Thin-skinned Tektonik mit nordvergentem Deckentransport unter LP/LT Bedingungen charakterisiert. Der gesamte, invers metamorphe D1-Deckenstapel wird dabei nach N über den autochtonen Deblín Komplex bzw. seine devonische Sedimenthülle überschoben. Das Brno Granit Massiv (580 Ma) wird nur randlich in diesen variszischen Deckenbau einbezogen. Die tektonische Entwicklung endet mit einem mittel bis großräumigen E-vergenten Faltenbau (D3 phase).
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-02-27
    Description: In this paper we present and discuss new investigations performed on both the magmatic basement and the sedimentary formations of La Désirade. We report structural and sedimentary evidences for several episodes of deformation and displacement occurring prior to the present day tectonics. The main faults, respectively N130 ± 10°, N040 ± 10° and N090 ± 10°, previously considered as marker of the current tectonic regime corresponds to reactivated tectonic structures developed first during late Cretaceous compression and second during Pliocene to early Pleistocene extension. We demonstrate also the importance of late Pliocene-early Pleistocene and middle-late Pleistocene vertical movements in this part of the Lesser Antilles fore-arc as well as the role of compressive tectonics in the over thickened character of the arc basement in the Guadeloupe archipelago.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2014-02-27
    Description: Synthesis of structural, petrological and geochronological data for the Maures–Tanneron Massif and its integration in the framework of adjacent massifs (i.e. Sardinia and Corsica) has allowed us to propose a new model of evolution for the southern Variscan belt. After Siluro-Devonian subduction associated with high-pressure–low-temperature (HP/LT) metamorphism M 0 ( c. 10–15 °C km –1 ) and subsequent Carboniferous nappes stacking, the belt underwent strong reworking related to back-thrusting. Nappes stacking and back-thrusting were associated with typical Barrovian metamorphism M 1 ( c. 20–30 °C km –1 ) starting at 360 Ma that progressively evolved to higher temperature metamorphisms M 2 ( c. 40–60 °C km –1 ) and M 3 ( c. 60–80 °C km –1 ) during 330–300 Ma in the internal part of the belt. Progressive increase of the thermal gradient is interpreted as a consequence of gravitational instabilities triggered in the partially molten orogenic root. Continuous compressive forces applied to the belt allowed vertical extrusion of the orogenic root in fold-dome structures. The mass transfer is accommodated by orogen-parallel transpressive shearing synchronous with M 3 during Late Carboniferous time. The orogenic wedge is characterized by two main tectono-metamorphic units decoupled by a major shear belt: an Internal Zone with migmatites and syntectonic granitoids, where HP relicts have been exhumed, and an External Zone that escaped the late HT event and preserved precious structures.
    Print ISSN: 0305-8719
    Electronic ISSN: 2041-4927
    Topics: Geosciences
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