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  • 1
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Washington, DC : United States Gov. Print. Off.
    Associated volumes
    Call number: SR 90.0002(1538-L)
    In: Professional paper
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: III, L-18 S.
    Series Statement: U.S. Geological Survey professional paper 1538-L
    Language: English
    Location: Lower compact magazine
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2007-12-19
    Description: At the surface, strike-slip fault stepovers, including abrupt fault bends, are typically regions of complex, often disconnected faults. This complexity has traditionally led geologists studying the hazard of active faults to consider such stepovers as important fault segment boundaries, and to give lower weight to earthquake scenarios that involve rupture through the stepover zone. However, recent geological and geophysical studies of several stepover zones along the San Andreas fault system in California have revealed that the complex nature of the fault zone at the surface masks a much simpler and direct connection at depths associated with large earthquakes (greater than 5 km). In turn, the simplicity of the connection suggests that a stepover zone would provide less of an impediment to through-going rupture in a large earthquake, so that the role of stepovers as segment boundaries has probably been overemphasized. However, counter-examples of fault complexity at depth associated with surface stepovers are known, so the role of stepovers in fault rupture behaviour must be carefully established in each case.
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-10-16
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/ConferencePaper
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-01-22
    Description: In 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) collected refraction and low-fold reflection data along a 150-km-long corridor extending from the Santa Monica Mountains northward to the Sierra Nevada. This profile was part of the second phase of the Los Angeles Region Seismic Experiment (LARSE II). Chief imaging targets included sedimentary basins beneath the San Fernando and Santa Clarita Valleys and the deep structure of major faults along the transect, including causative faults for the 1971 M 6.7 San Fernando and 1994 M 6.7 Northridge earthquakes, the San Gabriel Fault, and the San Andreas Fault. Tomogrphic modeling of first arrivals using the methods of Hole (1992) and Lutter et al. (1999) produces velocity models that are similar to each other and are well resolved to depths of 5-7.5 km. These models, together with oil-test well data and independent forward modeling of LARSE II refraction data, suggest that regions of relatively low velocity and high velocity gradient in the San Fernando Valley and the northern Santa Clarita Valley (north of the San Gabriel Fault) correspond to Cenozoic sedimentary basin fill and reach maximum depths along the profile of ~4.3 km and 〉3 km, respectively. The Antelope Valley, within the western Mojave Desert, is also underlain by low-velocity, high-gradient sedimentary fill to an interpreted maximum depth of ~2.4 km. Below depths of ~2 km, velocities of basement rocks in the Santa Monica Mountains and the central Transverse Ranges vary between 5.5 and 6.0 km/sec, but in the Mojave Desert, basement rocks vary in velocity between 5.25 and 6.25 km/sec. The San Andreas Fault separates differing velocity structures of the central Transverse Ranges and Mojave Desert. A weak low-velocity zone is centered approximately on the noth-dipping aftershock zone of the 1971 San Fernando earthquake and possibly along the deep projection of the San Gabriel Fault. Modeling of gravity data, using densities inferred from the velocity model, indicates that different velocity-density relationship hold for both sedimentary and basement rocks as one crosses the San Andreas Fault. The LARSE II velocity model can now be used to improve the SCEC Community Velocity Model, which is used to calculate seismic amplitudes for large scenario earthquakes.
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/article
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  • 5
  • 6
    Publication Date: 2015-09-30
    Description: The southern San Andreas fault system (California, USA) provides an excellent natural laboratory for studying the controls on vertical crustal motions related to strike-slip deformation. Here we present geologic, geomorphic, and gravity data that provide evidence for active northeastward tilting of the Santa Rosa Mountains and southern Coachella Valley about a horizontal axis oriented parallel to the San Jacinto and San Andreas faults. The Santa Rosa fault, a strand of the San Jacinto fault zone, is a large southwest-dipping normal fault on the west flank of the Santa Rosa Mountains that displays well-developed triangular facets, narrow footwall canyons, and steep hanging-wall alluvial fans. Geologic and geomorphic data reveal ongoing footwall uplift in the southern Santa Rosa Mountains, and gravity data suggest total vertical separation of ~5.0–6.5 km from the range crest to the base of the Clark Valley basin. The northeast side of the Santa Rosa Mountains has a gentler topographic gradient, large alluvial fans, no major active faults, and tilted inactive late Pleistocene fan surfaces that are deeply incised by modern upper fan channels. Sediments beneath the Coachella Valley thicken gradually northeast to a depth of ~4–5 km at an abrupt boundary at the San Andreas fault. These features all record crustal-scale tilting to the northeast that likely started when the San Jacinto fault zone initiated ca. 1.2 Ma. Tilting appears to be driven by oblique shortening and loading across a northeast-dipping southern San Andreas fault, consistent with the results of a recent boundary-element modeling study.
    Electronic ISSN: 1553-040X
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 7
  • 8
    Publication Date: 2013-12-04
    Description: Magnetic anomalies provide surprising structural detail within the previously undivided Coastal Belt, the westernmost, youngest, and least-metamorphosed part of the Franciscan Complex of northern California. Although the Coastal Belt consists almost entirely of arkosic graywacke and shale of mainly Eocene age, new detailed aeromagnetic data show that it is pervasively marked by long, narrow, and regularly spaced anomalies. These anomalies arise from relatively simple tabular bodies composed principally of magnetic basalt or graywacke confined mainly to the top couple of kilometers, even though metamorphic grade indicates that these rocks have been more deeply buried, at depths of 5–8 km. If true, this implies surprisingly uniform uplift of these rocks. The basalt (and associated Cretaceous limestone) occurs largely in the northern part of the Coastal Belt; the graywacke is recognized only in the southern Coastal Belt and is magnetic because it contains andesitic grains. The magnetic grains were not derived from the basalt, and thus require a separate source. The anomalies define simple patterns that can be related to folding and faulting within the Coastal Belt. This apparent simplicity belies complex structure mapped at outcrop scale, which can be explained if the relatively simple tabular bodies are internally deformed, fault-bounded slabs. One mechanism that can explain the widespread lateral extent of the thin layers of basalt is peeling up of the uppermost part of the oceanic crust into the accretionary prism, controlled by porosity and permeability contrasts caused by alteration in the upper part of the subducting slab. It is not clear, however, how this mechanism might generate fault-bounded layers containing magnetic graywacke. We propose that structural domains defined by anomaly trend, wavelength, and source reflect imbrication and folding during the accretion process and local plate interactions as the Mendocino triple junction migrated north, a hypothesis that should be tested by more detailed structural studies.
    Electronic ISSN: 1553-040X
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-01-25
    Description: Estimates of the dip, depth extent, and amount of cumulative displacement along the major faults in the central California Coast Ranges are controversial. We use detailed aeromagnetic data to estimate these parameters for the San Gregorio–San Simeon–Hosgri and other faults. The recently acquired aeromagnetic data provide an areally consistent data set that crosses the onshore-offshore transition without disruption, which is particularly important for the mostly offshore San Gregorio–San Simeon–Hosgri fault. Our modeling, constrained by exposed geology and in some cases, drill-hole and seismic-reflection data, indicates that the San Gregorio–San Simeon–Hosgri and Reliz-Rinconada faults dip steeply throughout the seismogenic crust. Deviations from steep dips may result from local fault interactions, transfer of slip between faults, or overprinting by transpression since the late Miocene. Given that such faults are consistent with predominantly strike-slip displacement, we correlate geophysical anomalies offset by these faults to estimate cumulative displacements. We find a northward increase in right-lateral displacement along the San Gregorio–San Simeon–Hosgri fault that is mimicked by Quaternary slip rates. Although overall slip rates have decreased over the lifetime of the fault, the pattern of slip has not changed. Northward increase in right-lateral displacement is balanced in part by slip added by faults, such as the Reliz-Rinconada, Oceanic–West Huasna, and (speculatively) Santa Ynez River faults to the east.
    Print ISSN: 1941-8264
    Electronic ISSN: 1947-4253
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2016-05-29
    Description: Thick late Miocene nonmarine evaporite (mainly halite and gypsum) and related lacustrine limestone deposits compose the upper basin fill in half grabens within the Lake Mead region of the Basin and Range Province directly west of the Colorado Plateau in southern Nevada and northwestern Arizona. Regional relations and geochronologic data indicate that these deposits are late synextensional to postextensional (ca. 12–5 Ma), with major extension bracketed between ca. 16 and 9 Ma and the abrupt western margin of the Colorado Plateau established by ca. 9 Ma. Significant accommodation space in the half grabens allowed for deposition of late Miocene lacustrine and evaporite sediments. Concurrently, waning extension promoted integration of initially isolated basins, progressive enlargement of drainage nets, and development of broad, low gradient plains and shallow water bodies with extensive clastic, carbonate, and/or evaporite sedimentation. The continued subsidence of basins under restricted conditions also allowed for the preservation of particularly thick, localized evaporite sequences prior to development of the through-going Colorado River. The spatial and temporal patterns of deposition indicate increasing amounts of freshwater input during the late Miocene (ca. 12–6 Ma) immediately preceding arrival of the Colorado River between ca. 5.6 and 4.9 Ma. In axial basins along and proximal to the present course of the Colorado River, evaporite deposition (mainly gypsum) transitioned to lacustrine limestone progressively from east to west, beginning ca. 12–11 Ma in the Grand Wash Trough in the east and shortly after ca. 5.6 Ma in the western Lake Mead region. In several satellite basins to both the north and south of the axial basins, evaporite deposition was more extensive, with thick halite (〉200 m to 2.5 km thick) accumulating in the Hualapai, Overton Arm, and northern Detrital basins. Gravity and magnetic lows suggest that thick halite may also lie within the northern Grand Wash, Mesquite, southern Detrital, and northeastern Las Vegas basins. New tephrochronologic data indicate that the upper part of the halite in the Hualapai basin is ca. 5.6 Ma, with rates of deposition of ~190–450 m/m.y., assuming that deposition ceased approximately coincidental with the arrival of the Colorado River. A 2.5-km-thick halite sequence in the Hualapai basin may have accumulated in ~5–7 m.y. or ca. 12–5 Ma, which coincides with lacustrine limestone deposition near the present course of the Colorado River in the region. The distribution and similar age of the limestone and evaporite deposits in the region suggest a system of late Miocene axial lakes and extensive continental playas and salt pans. The playas and salt pans were probably fed by both groundwater discharge and evaporation from shallow lakes, as evidenced by sedimentary textures. The elevated terrain of the Colorado Plateau was likely a major source of water that fed the lakes and playas. The physical relationships in the Lake Mead region suggest that thick nonmarine evaporites are more likely to be late synextensional and accumulate in basins with relatively large catchments proximal to developing river systems or broad elevated terranes. Other basins adjacent to the lower Colorado River downstream of Lake Mead, such as the Dutch Flat, Blythe-McCoy, and Yuma basins, may also contain thick halite deposits.
    Electronic ISSN: 1553-040X
    Topics: Geosciences
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