pharmacokinetics of aminoglycoside antibiotics
impaired renal function
Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Chemistry and Pharmacology
Summary Serum concentration, biological half-life, distribution space and serum clearance of sisomicin, a new aminoglycoside antibiotic, have been studied in twenty-three patients in comparison with the pharmacokinetics of125I-labelled iothalamate, a compound only filtered by the kidney. 10 patients had normal or borderline abnormal serum creatinine (〈1,5 mg/100 ml), 8 had various degrees of renal insufficiency (serum creatinine 1.7 – 9.6 mg/100 ml) and 6 were being treated by intermittent haemodialysis. After intravenous injection of sisomicin 1 mg/kg body weight in patients with normal or borderline renal function its half-life was 3.5 h, very similar to that of iothalamate, 3.2 h. The mean distribution space was 20.1 % per cent of body weight; iothalamate, 23.7 %. In patients with renal insufficiency there was a positive correlation between serum creatinine level and the half-life of sisomicin, and an even stronger correlation between the clearances of iothalamate and sisomicin. In patients dependent on haemodialysis, the mean serum half-life between dialysis was 40 h, compared to approximately 100 hours for iothalamate, which implies additional extrarenal clearance or tubular secretion of sisomicin. The results of pharmacokinetic studies indicated that a regime of sisomicin 1 mg/kg every 8 to 12 hours in patients with normal renal function would result in serum and urine levels sufficiently high to treat most urinary tract infections. In patients with impaired renal function the dosage interval should be increased according to the serum creatinine level, and in patients dependent on haemodialysis one standard dose at the end of each dialysis period should suffice. 9 patients with a chronic urinary tract infection severely complicated by an underlying disease were treated according to this dosage regimen with a satisfactory bacteriological and clinical result. No adverse reactions or signs of accumulation were observed.
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