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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2006
    Keywords: TF II ; Task Force II ; New tectonic causes of volcano failure
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-5060
    Keywords: Andean maize ; cold tolerance ; germplasm evaluation ; Zea mays
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Cold in the initial growth stages is an important stressfactor for maize grown in regions with a temperate climate,particularly in case of early sowing. Sources of tolerancehave been identified in adapted genotypes, but promisinggenes for cold tolerance should also be found in materialdeveloped under the lower-temperature margins of the cropdistribution. This research was conducted in order to testAndean maize accessions for cold tolerance expressed duringboth the heterotrophic and early autotrophic growth stages.Experiments were conducted in controlled environments tostudy cold tolerance traits (germination %, germinationindex and plant growth rate) at continuous 10°C (heterotrophic growth) and at varying 10–16°C (autotrophic growth). An experiment was also performed inthe field with early sowing (both heterotrophic and autotrophic growth). In each experiment, a control trialwas conducted in more favourable conditions (i.e. continuous25°C in a controlled environment or late planting inthe field) so that cold tolerance traits could also beexamined as the ratio between the stress and the controltrial. None of the accessions was superior for all coldtolerance traits. However, several Andean maize accessionsoutperformed the US Corn-belt hybrid checks for one or moretraits, both in heterotrophic and autotrophic growth. Overall, BOZM 855, PMS 636, Poblacion D, Poblacion E andBOZM 696 were the best accessions, suggesting that they canbe a promising source of genes for improving cold toleranceof adapted maize genotypes.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-5060
    Keywords: abscisic acid ; inheritance ; drought stress ; Zea mays ; maize
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary This study analyzes the components of phenotypic variation for abscisic acid (ABA) content in maize (Zea mays L.) leaves and the correlations with drought sensitivity index (DSI) and silk delay (SD), involved in the reaction to water deficit. Eight early- and seven medium-maturity inbreds were examined in field trials: in 1990 with low irrigation volume and in 1991 with low and high irrigation volumes. ABA concentration and DSI were investigated at growth stages (S) corresponding to stem elongation (S3), appearance of the first husks (S4), and mid-end of silking (S5). The ABA concentration was significantly higher in conditions of water deficit and in the later growth stage. The genetic component for ABA concentration attained higher relative values than those shown by DSI in the same growth stages and by SD; moreover, it increased from growth stage 3 to stage 5. The genotype × year and genotype × irrigation volume interactions were smaller for ABA concentration than for DSI and SD. The broad sense heritability on a plant basis, estimated in drought conditions, for ABA concentration ranged from 21.4 to 55.1% according to maturity group and growth stage. A wide variation was observed among lines for ABA concentration: the medium-maturity group showed a three-fold range (from 219 to 605 ng ABA g−1 dry weight). No clear relationships between ABA concentration, DSI and SD were found. These results indicate the feasibility of a selection for ABA concentration within segregating populations derived from crosses between the inbred lines herein tested.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-5060
    Keywords: Zea mays ; maize ; acetochlor ; heterosis ; susceptibility ; tolerance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary The variation of response to acetochlor was studied in a two-year experiment carried out by subjecting 18 maize (Zea mays L.) inbred lines to three herbicide rates (0, 2.5 and 5 l a.i./ha). In both years some inbred lines consistently exhibited an evident susceptibility, with symptoms consisting of the seedling curling up below the soil surface and causing impaired field emergence. The results were poor plant density and lower grain yield in comparison to control. In contrast, other lines showed a satisfactory level of tolerance. Then, to gather data on the inheritance of response to acetochlor, four tolerant inbreds (T) and four susceptible inbreds (S) were crossed to obtain four T×T, four S×S, four S×T and the corresponding four T×S two-way hybrids. These hybrids were studied together with parental lines by applying the same herbicide rates used in the previous trial. The S×S hybrids showed susceptibility to the herbicide and the T×T were tolerant, whereas the S×T and the T× S hybrids showed a tolerance very close to that of the T×T hybrids. No difference was found between S×T and the corresponding T×S hybrids as to herbicide response. On average, the 16 hybrids exhibited greater tolerance than the eight parental lines, with each hybrid group being more tolerant than its parental line group. These results indicate that tolerance to acetochlor is prevailingly dominant, that action of extranuclear genes should be ruled out, and that the level of plant vigour can affect herbicide reactiveness.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-5060
    Keywords: cold tolerance ; correlated responses ; germination ; kernel type ; kernel weight ; recurrent selection ; Zea mays
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary Four cycles of divergent full-sib recurrent selection for the ability to germinate at low temperature were conducted in a maize (Zea mays L.) F2 population. The selection criterion was the high (H) or the low (L) value in algebraic terms of the difference (DG) between germination percentage at 9.5°C (G9.5) detected 19 days after sowing and germination percentage at 25°C (G 25) seven days after sowing; both traits were evaluated in a controlled environment (germinator). Direct and correlated responses estimated during the course of selection were in accordance with those evaluated at the end. Selection for H led to populations with higher DG values, while the reverse was noted for L; differences between H and L populations increased in successive selection cycles, though divergence tended to level off. Selection for H also resulted in higher G 9.5 (day 19), shorter germination time and more flinty kernels, while selection for L led to responses in the opposite direction as well as to a lower G 9.5 detected 37 days after sowing (i.e. at the end of germination). In contrast, responses were negligible for G 25 and varied erratically from one cycle to another for kernel weight.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1438-1168
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung Eine chemische und mineralogische Untersuchung der magmatischen Einschlüsse in den sauren Gesteinen des Tolfa-Ceriti-Manziana Sektors (Toskanische Provinz, Zentralitalien) zeigt, daß sie nach dem Grad der Alkalinitdt unterteilt werden können. Wir unterscheiden TCM latite (TCML) mit einer Alkali-Kalium Affinität; Ceriti Latite (CL) mit einer kalkalkalischen Affinität und Manziana Shoshonite und Latite (MS-ML) mit einer Affinität die zwischen alkalisch und subalkalisch liegt. Die Letztgenannten sind Mischgesteine, die durch die Mischung zweier Magmen mit verschiedenen geochemischen Affinitäten entstanden sind. Diese Magmen, die genetisch nicht mit den Wirtsgesteinen in Beziehung stehen, dürften Schmelzen repräsentieren, die auf teilweise Aufschmelzung eines heterogenen Mantels, der durch eine krustale Quelle metasomatisiert wurde, zurückgehen. Die am meisten alkalischen Magmen (TCML) sind mit dem höchsten Grad der Metasomatose assoziiert, der wiederum, wenn noch stärker entwickelt, zur Entstehung der kalireichen Magmen der römischen Provinz führen könnte.
    Notes: Summary A chemical and mineralogical study of magmatic inclusions in the silica-rich rocks of the Tolfa-Ceriti-Manziana sector (Tuscan Province, Central Italy) shows that they can be grouped according to their degree of alkalinity. We distinguish: TCM latites (TCML) with an alkaline-potassic affinity; Ceriti latites (CL) with calc-alkaline affinity; and Manziana shoshonites and latites (MS-ML) with an affinity intermediate between alkaline and subalkaline. The latter are hybrid rocks originating from the mixing of two magmas with slightly different geochemical affinities. These magmas may represent liquids derived by partial melting of a heterogeneous mantle, metasomatized by a crustal source. The most alkaline magmas (TCML) are associated with the largest degree of metasomatism which, if more pronounced, could lead to the production of the potassic magmas of the Roman Province.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science 53 (1994), S. 649-663 
    ISSN: 0021-8995
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Development of advanced photonic devices requires extensive integration of several technologies. Electrooptical devices must simultaneously satisfy several materials properties including: high nonlinear optical activity, thermal stability, mechanical strength, and optical transparency. In addition, the device materials must be amenable to fabrication, and must be compatible in a multi-layered configuration. We have recently developed polymers which meet these complex requirements. Indeed, electrooptical devices have been demonstrated using these polymers. This paper is a comprehensive review of the development of such devices, from design of the molecular architecture to waveguide design and fabrication. The critical issues in each aspect of device development are discussed. © 1994 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Bulletin of volcanology 62 (2000), S. 294-300 
    ISSN: 1432-0819
    Keywords: Stromboli Persistent strombolian activity Tephrostratigraphy 14C datings
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract. Stromboli, known worldwide as the "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean", is commonly believed to have been in a state of persistent activity for the past 2000–2500 years. However, historical sources older than 1000 A.D. are not accurate enough to assess if the activity of the volcano was exactly the same as we see at present. In order to attempt to identify the onset of the present eruptive regime, and assess if it has been maintained with the same characteristics through time, stratigraphic and radiometric studies of the recent tephra deposits were undertaken. Up to 4-m-deep stratigraphic trenches, dug at a height of approximately 500 m on the NE flank of the volcano, exposed a conformable tephra pile containing charcoal fragments. One of the most interesting finds was the discovery of a 7-cm-thick weathered bed rich in organic matter (thin palaeosol) approximately 3 m below the surface. The sequence underneath the palaeosol consists of decimetre-thick lapilli fallout beds alternating with ash deposits bearing small charcoals with calibrated ages of between the fourth century B.C. and the first century A.D. The sequence above the palaeosol is charcoal free and consists of coarse-ash deposits with discrete, centimetre-thick lapilli fallout beds composed of crystal-poor golden pumice and subordinate crystal-rich black scoriae similar to scoria/pumice pairs emitted during the more energetic explosions of the present-day activity. The data collected indicate that between the third and seventh centuries A.D., after a period of quiescence, the activity resumed with an eruptive style identical to the present one. We conclude that the "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean" actually began its activity in a period much later than previously thought.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Zea mays L. ; Pollen assay ; Gametophytic selection ; Alachlor ; Herbicide tolerance
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract In order to assess the efficiency of male gametophytic selection (MGS) for crop improvement, pollen selection for tolerance to herbicide was applied in maize. The experiment was designed to test the parallel reactivity to Alachlor of pollen and plants grown in controlled conditions or in the field, the response to pollen selection in the sporophytic progeny, the response to a second cycle of MGS, and the transmission of the selected trait to the following generations. The results demonstrated that pollen assay can be used to predict Alachlor tolerance under field conditions and to monitor the response to selection. A positive response to selection applied to pollen in the sporophytic progeny was obtained in diverse genetic backgrounds, indicating that the technique can be generally included in standard breeding programs; the analysis of the data produced in a second selection cycle indicated that the selected trait is maintained in the next generation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Key words Abscisic acid (ABA) ; Drought stress ; Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) ; Maize (Zea mays L.) ; RFLPs
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract  Abscisic acid (ABA) concentration in leaves of drought-stressed plants is a quantitatively inherited trait. In order to identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling leaf ABA concentration (L-ABA) in maize, leaf samples were collected from 80 F3:4 families of the cross Os420 (high L-ABA)×IABO78 (low L-ABA) tested under drought conditions in field trials conducted over 2 years. In each year, leaf samples were collected at stem elongation and near anthesis. The genetic map obtained with 106 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) loci covered 1370 cM, which represented approximately 85% of the UMC maize map. Sixteen different QTLs with a LOD〉2.0 were revealed in at least one sampling. Across samplings, only four QTLs significantly influenced L-ABA, accounting for 66% of the phenotypic variation and 76% of the genetic variation among families. At these QTLs, the alleles which increased L-ABA were contributed by Os420. The two most important QTLs were mapped on chromosome 2 near csu133 and csu109a. The effects associated with the QTL near csu133 were more pronounced near anthesis. The support intervals of the four primary QTLs for L-ABA did not overlap the presumed map position of mutants impaired in ABA biosynthesis.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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