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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-02-16
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 100 (1978), S. 228-246 
    ISSN: 1520-5126
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-09-21
    Description: The objective of COMWEB was to develop efficient analytical, numerical and experimental methods for assessing and predicting the effects of nutrient (N, P, Si) supply on the stability and persistence of pelagic food web structure and function in coastal waters. The experimental comparative work included a geographic gradient covering Baltic, Mediterranean, and NE Atlantic waters and a NE Atlantic gradient in state of eutrophication. COMWEB has been an experimental approach to coastal eutrophication, studying effects of enhanced nutrient supply on components and flows of the entire lower pelagic food web. Flow network representations of pelagic food webs has been a framework of data reduction and flows were established by sophisticated inverse modelling. Fundamental information on physiological properties of functional key species in the pelagic food web was used to constrain flow estimations. A main conclusion derived from the flow networks was that very little energy and materials were transferred from the microbial food web to the main food chain. The lower food web could therefore be described as two parallel food chains with relatively limited interaction between heterotrophic groups. Short-term effects of nutrient perturbations were examined in mesocosms along the geographic gradient. The response was comparable in all systems, with a stronger effect on the activity and biomass of autotrophic groups than those of heterotrophic ones. Mediterranean waters showed much lower autotrophic biomass response than Baltic and NE Atlantic waters, which responded almost equally. The response of primary production was, however, more comparable. High phytoplankton lysis rate explained this low accumulation of biomass in Mediterranean waters. The study of Atlantic coastal waters of different eutrophic states revealed that the ecological response was higher in the closed nutrient perturbed mesocosms than in open systems exposed for 〉4 summer months (summer/autumn season). The Atlantic lagoon evolved gradually from the natural oligotrophic situation towards the more eutrophicated North Sea during fertilisation. The responses observed on seasonal and long-term scale (〉10 years) may therefore be equal. The differences between short-term (weeks) and intermediate-term (seasonal) responses is most likely a result of the different time scales of perturbation and observation and the variable exchange rates with surrounding waters (water dilution rate). The analysis of pelagic flow networks provided a framework of diagnostic criteria for state and quality assessment of coastal waters. The nutrient loading rates related better to estimates of biotic fluxes than to concentrations of biotic compartments and total nutrients. On the contrary, the concentration of biotic compartments, or the biomasses, related better to total nutrient concentrations. Primary production, mesozooplankton grazing and growth, fraction of primary production consumed by grazers, bacterial production relative to primary production, cycling indices, and path lengths were all well related to nutrient loading rate. Autotrophic biomass, ratio of autotrophic to heterotrophic biomass, and fraction of pico-cyanobacteria of total autotrophic biomass were all related to total nutrients. Some of these variables, which responded equally in all systems, have the potential of becoming unified response functions in a management model for European coastal waters. COMWEB has provided further insight into the mechanisms behind coastal eutrophication. A main achievement is the conceptual framework for unified response functions, important components of management models for nutrient emission to coastal waters.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-10-10
    Description: Observations are presented for stable carbon isotope abundance (δ13C) and organic carbon and nitrogen content of suspended organic matter from the Southern Ocean (Circumpolar Current and Polar Front) during spring and early summer. The Polar Front Zone was characterized by elevated plankton biomasses and phytoplankton activity, which also increased significantly over the one-month investigation period. From the beginning of the phytoplankton bloom δ13C values of suspended organic matter in the Polar Front were high, exceeding values predicted from the relationship with CO2(aq) concentration observed in other areas of the Southern Ocean. Later in the season δ13C of suspended organic matter in the Polar Front became more negative despite continued high biomass and productivity. Ambient CO2 concentration and cell growth rate, therefore, are not the only factors controlling the δ13C of phytoplankton. The possible additional impact of shifts in nitrogen uptake regime is discussed.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-5125
    Keywords: Schelde ; estuary ; phytoplankton ; bacterioplankton ; ecological models
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Since about 10 years, studies have been conducted at the University of Brussels in modelling the microbiological processes affecting biogenic substances in the Schelde estuary and its watershed. The first model, a one dimensional redox model, simulated the longitudinal distribution of oxygen, nitrate, iron and manganese in relation to the observed bacterial heterotrophic activity. A model allowing calculation of bacterial activity from data on organic discharge was coupled to this model. It was completed by a model of phytoplanktonic development within the estuary. Finally, an idealized model of the hydrographical network, based on Horton analysis, is being established in order to calculate the quality of the water at the downward boundary of the estuary. Together, all these sub-models form a general model of the ecological working of the Schelde estuary, able to predict at least the general trends of the redox state, the organic carbon, mineral nitrogen, and chlorophyll-a concentrations as a function of distance to the sea, from the knowledge of geomorphological and meteorological data, along with informations concerning the distribution of anthropogenic discharges. This model therefore provides a powerfull tool for the rational management of the Schelde estuary.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-5117
    Keywords: Northwestern Black Sea ; eutrophication ; mixotrophy ; ciliate ; food web
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Biomass and activities of planktonicmicroorganisms (bacteria, nanoplankton andmicroplankton) were measured in the northwestern BlackSea during summer 1995. The method based on theuptake of fluorescently labeled prey was chosen todetermine the ingestion rate of bacteria andnanoplankton by phagotrophic microorganisms. Thismethod revealed the presence of mixotrophic organismssuch as ’plastid-retaining ciliates‘ in the wholecoastal area. Mixotrophic ciliates were dominated bymicro-sized forms and maximum biomasses were recorded inthe water masses characterised by low nutrientconcentrations but high food particle concentrations. Mixotrophic nanoflagellates were absentand mixotrophic dinoflagellates were observed at onestation only. Mixotrophic ciliates were shown to ingestpreferably bacteria while mixotrophic dinoflagellateswere grazing almost exclusively on nanoflagellates.Although the biomass of mixotrophic organisms weresignificantly lower than those of aplastidic protozoa,their feeding activity contributed to 14 and 24% ofthe ingestion of bacteria and nanoplankton, respectively.This is due to the high specificingestion rate of mixotrophic micro-sized ciliates anddinoflagellates, which were two and three times higher,respectively, than the specific ingestion rate ofbacteria and nanoplankton by aplastidic protozoa. Thissuggests a significant contribution of phagotrophicmixotrophs to the microbial network of thenorthwestern Black Sea.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1793
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Conversion factors for calculating carbon biomass ofPhaeocystis sp. colonies and free-living cells were determined from microscopic observations and chemical analysis conducted on cultured and naturalPhaeocystis sp. populations originating from the Southern Bight of the North Sea in 1986 and 1987. They allow calculation, in terms of carbon biomass, of the different forms ofPhaeocystis sp. that succeed each other when the population is growing, on the basis of microscopic observations. The latter include enumerations of free-living cells (flagellated and non-motile) and colonies, as well as colonial biovolume measurement. Specific application to natural populations from Dutch coastal waters during spring 1986 shows that more than 90% ofPhaeocystis sp. carbon biomass is under colonial form, most of it exceeding the grazing characteristics of current zooplankton at this period of the year. Detailed analysis of seasonal changes shows in addition that the size of the colonies greatly increases during the course ofPhaeocystis sp. flowering, reaching sizes as high as 1 mm diameter at the top of the bloom when nutrients are depleted. Physiologically this corresponds to an enhanced synthesis of mucilaginous substances, with the decrease of available nutrients leading to an increasing contribution of the matrix to the total colonial carbon during the course of the bloom. Carbon content ofPhaeocystis sp. colonies therefore greatly varies with their size, ranging from 0.3 to 1430 ngC colony−1.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1793
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Short- and long-term time course studies of radiocarbon accumulation in the intracellular end-products of photosynthesis (proteins, polysaccharides, lipids, small metabolites) and extracellular monomers and polymers were conducted at natural light intensity during a 24-h period in Belgian coastal waters dominated by large diatoms species in September, 1983. It is shown that carbon losses observed during the long-term incubation are due to the catabolism of reserve products (polysaccharides and lipids), which occurs both during the light and dark periods and provides carbon and energy for pursuing protein synthesis during the dark. Catabolism rates, as calculated by means of a simple mathematical model, indicate reduced rates of lipid catabolism (1–2% h-1, respectively for the light and dark periods), although polysaccharide catabolism proceeds at much higher rates, namely 20% h-1 during the light and 8% h-1 during the dark period. Assuming that protein synthesis proceeds at a constant rate during the 24-h period and that β 1–3 glucan constitutes the main storage product of this diatom population, it is shown that at least 65% of the gross primary production is catabolized by the cells. From this, only 16% are mobilized for dark protein synthesis. The remaining is respired, especially during the light period.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1793
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Short- and long-term, light-dark, time-course studies of radiocarbon accumulation in the major intracellular end-products of photosynthesis (proteins, polysaccharides, lipids, small metabolites) and extracellular monomers and polymers were conducted at natural light intensity in Belgian coastal waters and in the English Channel on Phaeocystis poucheti colonies growing under depleted and non-limited, inorganic nitrogen concentration. Evidence is given that the exopolymeric substances which compose the colony envelope, massively secreted during the photoperiod, are used during the dark, together with the intracellular reserve products, to cover the carbon and energetic needs of the colonies either for the maintenance or for pursuing protein synthesis, according to the external inorganic nitrogen level.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
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    Cambridge University Press
    In:  In: The European Nitrogen Assessment: Sources, Effects and Policy Perspectives. , ed. by Sutton, M. Cambridge University Press, New York, USA, pp. 147-176. ISBN 978-1-107-00612-6
    Publication Date: 2015-11-26
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: text
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