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  • 1
    ISSN: 0304-4238
    Keywords: 4-methylene-glutamine ; amino acids ; asparagine ; cooling ; flowering ; quality test ; shoot ; tulip bulb
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: Eudrilus eugeniae ; Toxicity ; Copper ; Zinc Growth ; Maturation ; Uptake
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Growth rate change in earthworms is considered to be a suitable endpoint when determining sublethal effects. In this study we evaluated growth and maturation in the vermicomposting earthworm speciesEudrilus eugeniae as marker of sublethal toxicity of copper and zinc. We also compared routes of uptake. Apart from exposing worms experimentally for 73 days to contaminated food, a series of contact filter paper tests was also performed to determine LD50 for copper and zinc. Both copper and zinc at sublethal concentrations affected growth and maturation in worms exposed to contaminated food. These worms had a copper content of 34.5 μg g−1 after 73 days and a zinc content of 184.9 μg g−1, showing a differential uptake. Copper was more toxic than zinc. Also in the contact test worms did take up more zinc than copper and the LD50 (48 h) for copper was 0.011 mg cm−2 and for zinc 0.066 mg cm−2, which translated to body burdens of 6 μg g−1 for copper and 131 μg g−1 for zinc. Indications were that a regulatory mechanism existed for both metals. Both metals were taken up through the body wall at a relatively fast rate. This study indicated that the skin was the major route of metal uptake. This study also showed a poor relation between the two types of tests for purposes of evaluating lethality of zinc and copper.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0789
    Keywords: Key wordsEudrilus eugeniae ; Toxicity ; Copper ; Zinc ; Growth ; Maturation ; Uptake
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences , Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Growth rate change in earthworms is considered to be a suitable endpoint when determining sublethal effects. In this study we evaluated growth and maturation in the vermicomposting earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae as marker of sublethal toxicity of copper and zinc. We also compared routes of uptake. Apart from exposing worms experimentally for 73 days to contaminated food, a series of contact filter paper tests was also performed to determine LD50 for copper and zinc. Both copper and zinc at sublethal concentrations affected growth and maturation in worms exposed to contaminated food. These worms had a copper content of 34.5 μg g–1 after 73 days and a zinc content of 184.9 μg g–1, showing a differential uptake. Copper was more toxic than zinc. Also in the contact test worms did take up more zinc than copper and the LD50 (48 h) for copper was 0.011 mg cm–2 and for zinc 0.066 mg cm–2, which translated to body burdens of 6 μg g–1 for copper and 131 μg g–1 for zinc. Indications were that a regulatory mechanism existed for both metals. Both metals were taken up through the body wall at a relatively fast rate. This study indicated that the skin was the major route of metal uptake. This study also showed a poor relation between the two types of tests for purposes of evaluating lethality of zinc and copper.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0020-711X
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Physiologia plantarum 89 (1993), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1399-3054
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Previously ‘frozen’Tulipa gesneriana L. bulbs cv. Apeldoorn, were planted and grown at higher temperatures to study the role of invertase (EC 3.2.1.26) in the cold-induced elongation of the flower stalk internodes. After planting, flower stalks were left intact, or, the leaves and flower bud were both removed to inhibit internode elongation. In intact flower stalks, elongation of the internodes was accompanied by an accumulation of glucose and an initial decrease in the sucrose content g,−1 dry weight. Insoluble invertase activity g,−1 dry weight hardly changed, but soluble invertase activity showed a peak pattern, that was related, at least for the greater part, to the changes in the sugar contents. Peak activities of soluble invertase were found during (lower- and uppermost internodes) or around the onset of the rapid phase of internode elongation (middle internodes). Internode elongation and glucose accumulation immediately ceased when the leaves and flower bud were removed. Insoluble invertase activity g,−1 dry weight remained at its initial level (lowermost internode) or increased more towards the upper internodes. Soluble invertase activity did not further increase (uppermost internode) or decreased abruptly to a low level. It is concluded that soluble invertase may be one of the factors contributing to glucose accumulation and internode elongation in the tulip flower stalk.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1399-3054
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Tulip bulbs cv. Apeldoorn are dry stored at 5°C for 12 weeks to ensure subsequent optimal flowering when planted in the greenhouse at higher temperatures of 17–20°C. Both temperature and duration of the cold treatment determine the subsequent rate of the shoot elongation, the time until anthesis and the flower size, pigmentation and water content. In search for cold-specific physiological changes, possibly related to the development of the potential of proper flowering (flowering preparation), we studied the redistribution of organic nitrogen in both cooled (5°C) and non-cooled (17°C) bulbs.During 12 weeks of dry storage, the total protein- and free amino acid-nitrogen content decreased in the scales, whereas the opposite was found in the basal plate (with root primordia) and the shoot. In the shoot, this occurred significantly more at 17°C than at 5°C. At the same time, there was a tissue-specific change in the free amino acid composition in both cooled and non-cooled bulbs. Changes specific for the 5°C treatment were only found for the alanine content, in both the basal plate (with root primordia) and the shoot, and for the proline, asparagine, threonine, glycine and isoleucine content, in the shoot only. These changes are, for the greater part, completed within the first 6–8 weeks of dry storage. Bulbs stored for such a short period of time at 5°C still show flowering disorders. Thus, flowering preparation is only partly accompanied by changes in free amino acid contents.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-5087
    Keywords: cold requirement ; dry-storage ; elongation growth ; polyamines ; tulip bulbs
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Tulip bulbs cv. Apeldoorn are dry-stored at 5°C for 12 weeks to ensure sufficient elongation of the flower stalk, when subsequently planted at higher temperatures (17–20°C). To investigate whether free polyamines are involved in this process, flower stalk internodes were analyzed during dry-storage and after planting of the bulbs. During dry-storage for 12 weeks at 5°C (cooled) and 17°C (non-cooled), the free putrescine, spermidine and spermine amounts per flower stalk increased. The putrescine amount increased at 5°C significantly more than at 17°C, whereas the opposite was found for the spermine amount. These differences developed early during dry-storage and disappeared rapidly at subsequent higher temperatures. After planting, the lower- and uppermost flower stalk internodes of the pre-cooled bulbs elongated much faster than those of the non-cooled ones. In the pre-cooled bulbs, the free polyamine amounts per internode increased with time after planting, but the time course of these changes was different. In the non-cooled bulbs, the free polyamine amounts increased to a much lesser extent or remained more or less constant. It is argued that the observed changes in the free polyamine contents are probably not required for the cold-induced extension growth of tulips cv. Apeldoorn.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0005-2736
    Keywords: (Rat liver) ; Cardiolipin ; Digitonin ; Inner mitochondrial membrane ; Mitochondrion, isolation ; Mitochondrion, subfractionation ; Outer mitochondrial membrane ; Phospholipid composition
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0003-2670
    Keywords: Blood ; Gas chromatography ; Ifosfamide ; Mass spectrometry
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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