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  • 1
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    La Jolla : Geological Research Division
    Call number: MOP S 11983
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: 8 S.
    Location: MOP - must be ordered
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-0794
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Analytical studies are reported here for two cosmogenic effects due to low energy particles in extraterrestrial samples: (i) Formation of latent chemically etchable tracks in crystalline materials due to solid state damage as a result of ionisation losses suffered by multicharged cosmic ray nuclei, and (ii) Production of low threshold isotopes due to nuclear interactions of solar cosmic ray particles. The present analytical treatment is different from those previously reported and is more directly applicable to recent studies of low energy cosmogenic effects in meteorites and in lunar samples. We consider irradiation of ellipsoidal rocks in space and on the Moon. In the latter case, different irradiation geometries corresponding to different burials in the regolith are also considered. It is shown that results of irradiation of an object on the surface of a parent body differ from that of an object in free space in more complex manner than a uniform reduction by a factor of two due to the change over from 2π to 4π irradiation. Isocontours for ‘tracks’ or ‘isotopes’ are found to be markedly different in the two cases. Thus, the irradiation geometry must be explicitly taken into account in interpreting low-energy cosmogenic effects in lunar rocks. Simultaneous analyses of tracks and radioisotopes of different half-lives should allow one to establish principal irradiation geometries both for meteorites and lunar samples.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Space science reviews 14 (1972), S. 3-102 
    ISSN: 1572-9672
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Recent examinations of extraterrestrial materials exposed to cosmic rays for different intervals of time during the geological history of the solar system have generated a wealth of new information on the history of cosmic radiation. This information relates to the temporal variations in (i) the flux and energy spectrum of low energy (solar) protons of ⩾ 10 MeV kinetic energy; (ii) the flux and energy spectrum of (solar) heavy nuclei of Z 〉 20 of kinetic energy, 0.5–10 MeV/n; (iii) the integrated flux of protons and heavier nuclei of ⩾ 0.5 GeV kinetic energy, and (iv) the flux and energy spectrum of nuclei of Z 〉 20 of medium energy — 100–2000 MeV/n kinetic energy. The above studies are entirely based on the natural detector method which utilises two principal cosmogenic effects observed in rocks, (i) isotopic changes and (ii) changes in the crystalline structure of rock constituents, due to cosmogenic interactions. The information available to date in the field of hard rock cosmic ray archaeology refers to meteorites and lunar rocks/soil. Additional information based on study of cosmogenic effects in man-made materials exposed to cosmic radiation in space is also discussed. It is shown that the natural detectors inspite of their extreme simplicity have begun to provide cosmic ray information in a very quantitative and precise manner comparable to the most sophisticated electronic particle detectors. The single handicap in using the hard rock detectors is however the uncertainty regarding their manner of exposure, geometry etc. At present, a variety of techniques are being used to study the evolutionary history of extraterrestrial materials and as this field grows, uncertainties in cosmic ray archaeology will correspondingly decrease.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1572-946X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract High fluences (i.e. the integrated fluxes) of C, N, O group of nuclei and some of the heavier ones, in the energy interval 10–25 MeV/amu, have been identified in a Lexan polycarbonate detector assembly exposed on the exterior of the Skylab for 73 days. The existence of large flux of low energy nuclei in the Skylab orbit is surprising since the minimum geomagnetic cut-off energy for fully stripped nuclei (A/Z=2) is ≃50 MeV/amu at the orbit of the satellite, and the period of exposure was a ‘quiet’ one, free from significant solar particle events. We have considered two sources for these particles: (i) partly ionized interplanetary ions accelerated within the magnetosphere and (ii) heavy nuclei trapped in the Earth's radiation belt. The flux and composition of the nuclei observed by us seem to be significantly different from those in the trapped radiation as known at present; hence it seems likely that the major part of the observed flux may be interpreted, in terms of partly ionized interplanetary ions that are further accelerated in the magnetosphere.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1572-946X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract We discuss the present day information on the prehistoric proton radiation in the solar system at 1 AU based on activation of lunar surface materials, in relation to our present day knowledge of their contemporary fluxes in solar flare events and during quiet time. The bulk of the prehistoric radiation can be attributed to its origin in solar flares. Its energy spectrum is, however, harder than the solar flare radiation observed during solar cycles 19, 20, and 21 (1954–1986). The implications of the data to other sources of particles and/or acceleration mechanisms in the interplanetary region are discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Earth, moon and planets 18 (1978), S. 371-382 
    ISSN: 1573-0794
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The depth variations of the fossil cosmic ray tracks and agglutinates have been examined in the (0.6–0.7)m deep Apollo 12 and 16 drive cores, in the 2.4 m Apollo 15 deep drill core and in a 0.6 m long section of the Apollo 17 deep drill core. These data indicate Moon-wide short duration episodes of impacts of meteorites of size 10 cm−1m on the lunar surface. Based on the longest continuous Apollo 15 deep drill core record, these impact episodes occurred about 150, 400 and 700 m.y. ago. The enhancements in the meteorite flux may be due to solar dynamical processes or they may be related to excursions of the solar system, once in each orbit, through a certain dusty region of the galaxy.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1572-9672
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The discovery in the early sixties of precompaction solar wind irradiation records in the gas-rich meteorites opened up the possibility of studying the solar activity at different epochs in the distant past. Subsequent studies in several meteorites have led to the discovery of the precompaction records of irradiation of constituent grains by solar wind, solar flare and galactic cosmic ray particles. There are also microcraters resulting from their collisions with interplanetary dust grains. Analyses of these records and their observed similarity with those found in the lunar samples led to the hypothesis that the precompaction records in individual components of these meteorites were imprinted while they were residing in the near surface region of their parent bodies, most probably the asteroids. Although the asteroids are the most plausible candidates for the parent bodies of gas-rich meteorites, there exist certain dynamical arguments which tend to favor a cometary origin in certain cases. Also, recent studies indicate that in the case of gas-rich carbonaceous chondrites solar flare irradiation of grains may have occurred prior to formation of the parent bodies. In this review we summarize the significant advances that have taken place in the multi-disciplinary studies (petrography, chemistry, and radiation effects) of the gas-rich meteorites and critically evaluate the present state of our knowledge regarding the origin and evolution of the gas-rich meteorites. The information on the spatial and temporal variations in the interplanetary radiation and particle fluxes, obtained from the analysis of precompaction irradiation records in these meteorites is presented and further studies in certain specific topics are suggested for resolving some of the unsolved problems.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1572-9672
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    World Development 4 (1976), S. 889-905 
    ISSN: 0305-750X
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Geography , Political Science , Sociology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2020-01-18
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 312 data points
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