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  • 1
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Amsterdam [u.a.] : Elsevier
    Associated volumes
    Call number: 10/M 02.0598
    In: Developments in geochemistry
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: xvii, 226 S.
    Edition: 1st ed.
    ISBN: 0444505695
    Series Statement: Developments in geochemistry 7
    Classification: A.3.8.
    Language: English
    Location: Reading room
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 2
    Call number: 15/M 03.0121
    In: Handbook of petroleum exploration and production
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: xviii, 338 S.
    Edition: 2nd ed.
    ISBN: 0444505520
    Series Statement: Handbook of petroleum exploration and production 2
    Location: Reading room
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1520-5045
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1520-5045
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1520-5045
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1745-6592
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geosciences
    Notes: Accidental release of petroleum hydrocarbons to the subsurface may occur through spills around refineries, leaking pipelines, storage tanks, or other sources. If the spill is large, the hydrocarbon liquids may eventually reach a water table and spread laterally in a pancake-like lens. Hydrocarbons that exist as a separate phase are termed light nonaqueous phase liquids (LNAPLs). The portion of the LNAPL that is mobile, not entrapped as residual saturation, is termed “free product.”This paper presents new analytical solutions for the design of long-term free-product recovery from aquifers with skimmer, single- and dual-pump wells. The solutions are for steady-state flow, based on the assumption of vertical equilibrium, and include the effect of coning of LNAPL, air, and water on flow. The solutions are valid for soils of large hydraulic conductivity where the effect of capillary pressure on coning is small.The results show how to estimate the maximum rate of inflow of LNAPL for skimmer wells, i.e., wells in which LNAPL is recovered with little or no water production. The paper also shows how to calculate the increase in LNAPL recovery when water is pumped by single- or dual-pump wells. A simple equation is given that can be used to adjust the water rate to avoid smearing of the LNAPL below the water table.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1745-6592
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geosciences
    Notes: Recovery wells remain the principle technology for removal of free-product hydrocarbon liquids from the subsurface. This paper presents simple models for estimating hydrocarbon recovery rates using wells and vacuum-enhanced systems. Use of LNAPL volume balance between LNAPL recovery rate and formation free-product volume leads to development of algebraic equations that can be used to estimate recovery times. Selection of model parameters is discussed, model comparisons are made, and applications are presented for design and analysis of recovery systems using wells. Model validation is also discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mathematical geology 27 (1995), S. 359-371 
    ISSN: 1573-8868
    Keywords: p-normal ; type curve
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract The p-normal transformation plays an important role in reservoir characterization for data sets that are neither normally nor log-normally distributed. The key step in the transformation is to estimate the value of pfor a given data set. Even though there are several ways to determine p,these are more inconvenient than the quicker and easier type curve approach to estimate pwe present in this paper. In addition, the method provides the p-normal transformation with a visual interpretation. We demonstrate the technique by analyzing reservoir permeability and porosity data from the East Velma West Block Sims Sand Unit, Oklahoma.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-8868
    Keywords: sequential simulated annealing ; semianalytic tracer response ; integrated heterogeneity modeling
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract Characterizing heterogeneous permeable media using flow and transport data typically requires solution of an inverse problem. Such inverse problems are intensive computationally and may involve iterative procedures requiring many forward simulations of the flow and transport problem. Previous attempts have been limited mostly to flow data such as pressure transient (interference) tests using multiple observation wells. This paper discusses an approach to generating stochastic permeability fields conditioned to geologic data in the form of a vertical variogram derived from cores and logs as well as fluid flow and transport data, such as tracer concentration history, by sequential application of simulated annealing (SA). Thus, the method incorporates elements of geostatistics within the framework of inverse modeling. For tracer-transport calculations, we have used a semianalytic transit-time algorithm which is fast, accurate, and free of numerical dispersion. For steady velocity fields, we introduce a “transit-time function” which demonstrates the relative importance of data from different sources. The approach is illustrated by application to a set of spatial permeability measurements and tracer data from an experiment in the Antolini Sandstone, an eolian outcrop from northern Arizona. The results clearly reveal the importance of tracer data in reproducing the correlated features (channels) of the permeability field and the scale effects of heterogeneity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Mathematical geology 30 (1998), S. 637-660 
    ISSN: 1573-8868
    Keywords: secondary migration ; three-phase flow ; hydrocarbon trapping ; nonlinear waves
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract The objective of this work is to study the migration of hydrocarbons from a source rock into possible reservoirs. In particular, we consider simultaneous migration of gas and oil through a water-filled carrier bed and how this flow might result in characteristics that could be interpreted by nontraditional exploration methods. In the modeling, one-dimensional, immiscible, isothermal flow is assumed, and capillary effects are excluded. The seal is modeled as a layer of very low permeability. Our analysis is based on the method of characteristics and simple wave theory. Waves are changes in saturation(s) that move through a reservoir or carrier bed at a characteristic velocity. The analysis does not require capillary forces to trap hydrocarbons, but relies on nonlinear wave phenomena to explain migration and entrapment. No doubt, capillary forces are important in secondary migration and entrapment. Our treatment can be viewed as being part of a more complete theory on secondary migration, considering hydrodynamic effects here. We demonstrate that capillary forces are not the only mechanism that can cause trapping of hydrocarbons. We focus on the role of gas in the trapping of oil. If the seal is slightly permeable, some oil will flow through it. With gas present, the efficiency of the seal can increase, and oil can be completely trapped by a structure that would otherwise be permeable. For example, gas, being much more mobile than oil, can form a bank at the interface between two layers that have a modest permeability contrast. This gas bank will have a relatively large gas saturation. This will decrease the relative permeability to oil and completely trap subsequently migrated oil. Oil can also be trapped even when no gas bank is formed at the permeable seal. Features of this problem that might affect a seismic signal are (1) the existence of gas above (caused by a stow leakage of gas) and below a modest seal, (2) the gas leakage itself, (3) modest saturations in the oil column, and (4) overpressuring in the gas column.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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