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  • 1
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Smith, Craig D; Ross, Amber; Kochendorfer, John; Earle, Michael E; Wolff, Mareile; Buisan, Samuel; Roulet, Yves-Alain; Laine, Timo (in review): Evaluation of the WMO-SPICE transfer functions for adjusting the wind bias in solid precipitation measurements. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences Discussions, https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-2019-313
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: Following the end of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Solid Precipitation Inter-Comparison Experiment (SPICE) field project in the spring of 2015, eight participating sites continued to operate the WMO Double Fence Automated Reference (DFAR) for solid precipitation measurement and other core instrumentation. The measurement data set includes: precipitation accumulation from the DFAR (the reference configuration for solid precipitation) and single-Alter shielded and unshielded weighing precipitation gauges (occasionally as replicates); wind speed (at gauge height, 10 m height, or both); and air temperature near the surface (usually at 1.5 m height). The weighing precipitation gauge models are either Geonor T-200B3 or OTT Pluvio2. The non-reference precipitation data are adjusted for wind bias using the WMO-SPICE transfer functions.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 16 datasets
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Nickel ; Palladium ; Cobalt ; N ligands ; Crystal structures ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Synthesis of new palladium(II) (1), nickel(II) (2a and 2b), and cobalt(II) (3) complexes bearing the unsymmetrical, bidentate nitrogen ligand 2,6-bis(1-methylethyl)-N-(2-pyridinylmethylene)phenylamine (L) is described. The solid-state structures of 1, 2a, and 2b have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The PdII compound exists in the monomeric form whereas the nickel complexes were observed as centrosymmetric dimers with slightly distorted square-pyramidal coordination sphere around each nickel center.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-06-22
    Description: Forests, Vol. 9, Pages 370: Mechanized Tree Planting in Sweden and Finland: Current State and Key Factors for Future Growth Forests doi: 10.3390/f9070370 Authors: Back Tomas Ersson Tiina Laine Timo Saksa In Fennoscandia, mechanized tree planting is time-efficient and produces high-quality regeneration. However, because of low cost-efficiency, the mechanization of Fennoscandian tree planting has been struggling. To determine key factors for its future growth, we compared the operational, planning, logistical, and organizational characteristics of mechanized planting in Sweden and Finland. Through interviews with planting machine contractors and client company foresters, we establish that mechanized tree planting in Sweden and Finland presently shares more similarities than differences. Some notable differences include typically longer planting seasons in Sweden, and a tendency towards two-shift operation and less frequent worksite pre-inspection by contractors in Finland. Because of similar challenges, mechanized planting in both countries can improve cost-efficiency through education of involved foresters, flexible information systems, efficient seedling logistics, and continued technical development of planting machines. By striving to have multiple client companies, contractors can reduce their operating radii and increase their machine utilization rates. Above all, our results provide international readers with unprecedented detailed and comprehensive figures and characteristics of Swedish and Finnish mechanized tree-planting activities. We conclude that cooperation between Sweden’s and Finland’s forest industries and research institutes could enhance the mechanization level of Fennoscandian tree planting.
    Electronic ISSN: 1999-4907
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Published by MDPI Publishing
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-07-14
    Description: Although precipitation has been measured for many centuries, precipitation measurements are still beset with significant inaccuracies. Solid precipitation is particularly difficult to measure accurately, and wintertime precipitation measurement biases between different observing networks or different regions can exceed 100%. Using precipitation gauge results from the World Meteorological Organization Solid Precipitation Intercomparison Experiment (WMO-SPICE), errors in precipitation measurement caused by gauge uncertainty, spatial variability in precipitation, hydrometeor type, crystal habit, and wind were quantified. The methods used to calculate gauge catch efficiency and correct known biases are described. Adjustments, in the form of transfer functions that describe catch efficiency as a function of air temperature and wind speed, were derived using measurements from eight separate WMO-SPICE sites for both unshielded and single-Alter-shielded precipitation-weighing gauges. For the unshielded gauges, the average undercatch for all eight sites was 0.50mmh−1 (34%), and for the single-Alter-shielded gauges it was 0.35mmh−1 (24%). After adjustment, the mean bias for both the unshielded and single-Alter measurements was within 0.03mmh−1 (2%) of zero. The use of multiple sites to derive such adjustments makes these results unique and more broadly applicable to other sites with various climatic conditions. In addition, errors associated with the use of a single transfer function to correct gauge undercatch at multiple sites were estimated.
    Print ISSN: 1027-5606
    Electronic ISSN: 1607-7938
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-01-03
    Description: Although precipitation has been measured for many centuries, precipitation measurements are still beset with significant inaccuracies. Solid precipitation is particularly difficult to measure accurately, and differences between winter-time precipitation measurements from different measurement networks or different regions can exceed 100 %. Using precipitation gauge results from the World Meteorological Organization Solid Precipitation Intercomparison Experiment (WMO-SPICE), errors in precipitation measurement caused by gauge uncertainty, spatial variability in precipitation, hydrometeor type, crystal habit, and wind were quantified. The methods used to calculate gauge catch efficiency and correct known biases are described. Adjustments, in the form of transfer functions that describe catch efficiency as a function of air temperature and wind speed, were derived using measurements from eight separate WMO-SPICE sites for both unshielded and single-Alter shielded weighing precipitation gauges. The use of multiple sites to derive such adjustments makes these results unique and more broadly applicable to other sites with various climatic conditions. In addition, errors associated with the use of a single transfer function to correct gauge undercatch at multiple sites were estimated.
    Print ISSN: 1812-2108
    Electronic ISSN: 1812-2116
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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