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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2002-01-01
    Description: Seismic reflection data from the Danish North Sea are interpreted to map the structure of the Palaeozoic basement in the area of the MONA LISA deep seismic lines. Based on a characteristic near-basement reflection, the upper crystalline crust of Baltica of offshore Denmark is traced to the south into the southern Horn-Graben, and to the west to the eastern shoulder of the Central Graben. A two-way-traveltime map of the near-basement horizon and several interpreted seismic sections reveal that three main tectonic events influenced the topography of the basement: (1) a compressional event which could be Caledonian in age; (2) a Palaeozoic extensional event postdating the compressional deformation and expressed in a system of WSW-ESE to W-E striking Palaeozoic half-grabens; and (3) the Permo-Triassic rifting that led to the formation of NNW-SSE to NNE-SSW trending Mesozoic faults of the Horn Graben and the Central Graben which are oriented sub-perpendicular to the Palaeozoic system. Compressive deformation is localized in a narrow zone around and south of the hitherto interpreted Caledonian Deformation Front and foreland deformation on Baltica is suggested as its origin. The seismic image of the Palaeozoic halfgrabens indicates that the East North Sea High is an inverted Palaeozoic rift which subsequently was cut by younger Late Palaeozoic to Mesozoic rifts of the Horn and Central Grabens. The timing of the first extensional phase remains speculative, but it predates the Rotliegend unconformity. Some of the older Palaeozoic normal faults may have been reactivated as transfer zones between the different graben segments during the Permo-Mesozoic extension.
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  • 2
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    In:  [Poster] In: 71. Jahrestagung der Deutschen Geophysikalischen Gesellschaft, 21.-24.02.2011, Köln .
    Publication Date: 2012-02-23
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2012-02-23
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Oceanic island arcs are sites of high magma production and contribute to the formation of continental crust. Geophysical studies may provide information on the configuration and composition of island arc crust, however, to date only few seismic profiles exist across active island arcs, limiting our knowledge on the deep structure and processes related to the production of arc crust. We acquired active-source wide-angle seismic data crossing the central Lesser Antilles island arc north of Dominica where the oceanic Tiburon Ridge subducts obliquely beneath the forearc. A combined analysis of wide-angle seismics and pre-stack depth migrated reflection data images the complex structure of the backstop and its segmentation into two individual ridges, suggesting an intricate relation between subducted basement relief and forearc deformation. Tomographic imaging reveals three distinct layers composing the island arc crust. A three kilometer thick upper crust of volcanogenic sedimentary rocks and volcaniclastics is underlain by intermediate to felsic middle crust and plutonic lower crust. The island arc crust may comprise inherited elements of oceanic plateau material contributing to the observed crustal thickness. A high density ultramafic cumulates layer is not detected, which is an important observation for models of continental crust formation. The upper plate Moho is found at a depth of 24 km below the sea floor. Upper mantle velocities are close to the global average. Our study provides important information on the composition of the island arc crust and its deep structure, ranging from intermediate to felsic and mafic conditions. In this study we model the deep structure of the Lesser Antilles Island Arc. We use a hybrid analysis of refraction and reflection seismic data. We image the complex structure of two ridges forming the backstop. Island arc crust composition ranges from intermediate to felsic to mafic conditions. We discuss the formation of island arc and continental crust.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: This work focuses on the analysis of a unique set of seismological data recorded by two temporary networks of seismometers deployed onshore and offshore in the Central Lesser Antilles Island Arc from Martinique to Guadeloupe islands. During the whole recording period, extending from January to the end of August 2007, more than 1300 local seismic events were detected in this area. A subset of 769 earthquakes was located precisely by using HypoEllipse. We also computed focal mechanisms using P-wave polarities of the best azimuthally constrained earthquakes. We detected earthquakes beneath the Caribbean forearc and in the Atlantic oceanic plate as well. At depth seismicity delineates the Wadati–Benioff Zone down to 170 km depth. The main seismic activity is concentrated in the lower crust and in the mantle wedge, close to the island arc beneath an inner forearc domain in comparison to an outer forearc domain where little seismicity is observed. We propose that the difference of the seismicity beneath the inner and the outer forearc is related to a difference of crustal structure between the inner forearc interpreted as a dense, thick and rigid crustal block and the lighter and more flexible outer forearc. Seismicity is enhanced beneath the inner forearc because it likely increases the vertical stress applied to the subducting plate.
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-12-05
    Description: In 2007 the Sismantilles II experiment was conducted to constrain structure and seismicity in the central Lesser Antilles subduction zone. The seismic refraction data recorded by a network of 27 OBSs over an area of 65 km×95 km provide new insights on the crustal structure of the forearc offshore Martinique and Dominica islands. The tomographic inversion of first arrival travel times provides a 3D P-wave velocity model down to 15 km. Basement velocity gradients depict that the forearc is made up of two distinct units: A high velocity gradient domain named the inner forearc in comparison to a lower velocity gradient domain located further trenchward named the outer forearc. Whereas the inner forearc appears as a rigid block uplifted and possibly tilted as a whole to the south, short wavelength deformations of the outer forearc basement are observed, beneath a 3 to 6 km thick sedimentary pile, in relation with the subduction of the Tiburon Ridge and associated seafloor reliefs. North, offshore Dominica Island, the outer forearc is 70 km wide. It extends as far as 180 km to the east of the volcanic front where it acts as a backstop on which the accretionary wedge developed. Its width decreases strongly to the south to terminate offshore Martinique where the inner forearc acts as the backstop. The inner forearc is likely the extension at depth of theMesozoicmagmatic crust outcropping to the north in La Désirade Island and along the scarp of the Karukera Spur. The outer forearc could be either the eastern prolongation of the inner forearc, but the crust was thinned and fractured during the past tectonic history of the area or by recent subduction processes, or an oceanic terrane more recently accreted to the island arc.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-09-24
    Description: We present an integrated approach of the seismic structure and activity along the offshore SW Hellenic subduction from combined observations of marine and land seismic stations. Our imaging of the slab top topography from teleseismic receiver function analysis at ocean bottom seismometers supports a trenchward continuation of the along-dip slab faults beneath the Peloponnesus. We further show that their morphostructural control accounts for the backstepping of the thrust contact of the Mediterranean Ridge accretionary wedge over the upper plate. Local seismic activity offshore SW Peloponnesus constrained by ocean bottom seismometer observations reveals a correlation with specific features of the forearc: the Matapan Troughs. We study the Mw6.8 14.02.2008 interplate earthquake offshore SW Peloponnesus and show that its nucleation, rupture zone, and aftershocks sequence are confined to one slab panel between two adjacent along-dip faults and are thus controlled by not only the offshore slab top segmentation but also the upper plate sea-bottom morphology.
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: The 300-km-long north-central segment of the Lesser Antilles subduction zone, including Martinique and Guadeloupe islands has been the target of a specific approach to the seismic structure and activity by a cluster of active and passive offshore–onshore seismic experiments. The top of the subducting plate can be followed under the wide accretionary wedge by multichannel reflection seismics. This reveals the hidden updip limit of the contact of the upper plate crustal backstop onto the slab. Two OBS refraction seismic profiles from the volcanic arc throughout the forearc domain constrain a 26-km-large crustal thickness all along. In the common assumption that the upper plate Moho contact on the slab is a proxy of its downdip limit these new observations imply a three times larger width of the potential interplate seismogenic zone under the marine domain of the Caribbean plate with respect to a regular intra-oceanic subduction zone. Towards larger depth under the mantle corner, the top of the slab imaged fromthe conversions of teleseismic body-waves and the locations of earthquakes appearswith kinks which increase the dip to 10–20° under the forearc domain, and then to 60° from 70 km depth. At 145 km depth under the volcanic arc just north of Martinique, the 2007 M 7.4 earthquake, largest for half a century in the region, allows to document a deep slab deformation consistent with segmentation into slab panels. In relation with this occurrence, an increased seismic activity over the whole depth range provides a new focussed image thanks to the OBS and land deployments. A double-planed dipping slab seismicity is thus now resolved, as originally discovered in Tohoku (NE Japan) and since in other subduction zones. Two other types of seismic activity uniquely observed in Tohoku, are now resolved here: “supraslab” earthquakes with normal-faulting focal mechanisms reliably located in the mantle corner and “deep flat-thrust” earthquakes at 45 km depth on the interplate fault under the Caribbean plate forearc mantle. None such types of seismicity should occur under the paradigm of a regular peridotitic mantle of the upper plate which is expected to be serpentinized by the fluids provided from the dehydrating slab beneath. This process is commonly considered as limiting the downward extent of the interplate coupling. Interpretations are not readily available either for the large crustal thickness of this shallow water marine upper plate, except when remarking its likeness to oceanic plateaus formed above hotspots. The Caribbean Oceanic Plateau of the upper plate has been formed earlier by the material advection from a mantle plume. It could then be underlain by a correspondingly modified, heterogeneous mantle, which may include pyroxenitic material among peridotites. Such heterogeneity in the mantle corner of the present subduction zone may account for the notable peculiarities in seismic structure and activity and impose regions of stick-slip behavior on the interplate among stable-gliding areas.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2013-10-01
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: The NE dipping slab of the Hellenic subduction is imaged in unprecedented detail using teleseismic receiver function analysis on a dense 2-D seismic array. Mapping of slab geometry for over 300 km along strike and down to 100 km depth reveals a segmentation into dipping panels by along-dip faults. Resolved intermediate-depth seismicity commonly attributed to dehydration embrittlement is shown to be clustered along these faults. Large earthquakes occurrence within the upper and lower plate and at the interplate megathrust boundary show a striking correlation with the slab faults suggesting high mechanical coupling between the two plates. Our results imply that the general slab rollback occurs here in a differential piecewise manner imposing its specific stress and deformation pattern onto the overriding Aegean plate.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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