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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-2242
    Keywords: Nicotiana ; Chloroplast DNA ; Restriction patterns ; Physical mapping ; Restriction site variations
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The restriction profiles of chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) from Nicotiana tabacum, N. sylvestris, N. plumbaginifolia, and N. otophora were obtained with respect to AvaI, BamHI, BglI, HindIII, PstI, PvuII, SalI, and XhoI. An efficient mapping method for the construction of cpDNA physical maps in Nicotiana was established via a computer-aided analysis of the complete cpDNA sequence of N. tabacum for probe selection. The efficiency of this approach is demonstrated by the determination of cpDNA maps from N. sylvestris, N. plumbaginifolia, and N. otophora with respect to all of the above restriction endonucleases. The size and basic structure of the cpDNA from the three species are almost identical, with an addition of approximately 80 bp in N. plumbaginifolia. The restriction patterns and hence the physical maps between N. tabacum and N. sylvestris cpDNA are identical and there is no difference in the Pvull digests of cpDNA from all four species. Restriction site variations in cpDNA from different species probably result from point mutations, which create or eliminate a particular cutting site, and they were observed spanning the whole chloroplast molecule but highly concentrated in both ends of the large, single-copy region. The results presented here will be used for the forthcoming characterization of chloroplast genomes in the interspecies somatic hybrids of Nicotiana, and will be of great value in completing the exploration of the phylogenetic relationships within this already extensively studied genus.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Cryptic Ac-homologous sequence ; Activator transposable element ; Hypermethylation ; Transposition ; Maize
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Sequences sharing homology to the transposable element Activator (Ac) are prevalent in the maize genome. A cryptic Ac-like DNA, cAc-11, was isolated from the maize inbred line 4Co63 and sequenced. Cryptic Ac-11 has over 90% homology to known Ac sequences and contains an 11 by inverted terminal repeat flanked by an 8 by target site duplication, which are characteristics of Ac and Dissociation (Ds) transposable elements. Unlike the active Ac element, which encodes a transposase, the corresponding sequence in cAc-11 has no significant open reading frame. A 44 by tandem repeat was found at one end of cAc-11, which might be a result of aberrant transposition. The sequence data suggest that cAc-11 may represent a remnant of an Ac or a Ds element. Sequences homologous to cAc-11 can be detected in many maize inbred lines. In contrast to canonical Ac elements, cAc-11 DNA in the maize genome is hypermethylated and does not transpose even in the presence of an active Ac element.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-203X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Fusion of mesophyll protoplasts of haploid Nicotiana plumbaginifolia (P) and N. sylvestris (S) resulted in the production of somatic hybrid plants of various ploidy levels. Analysis of the restriction fragment patterns of chloroplast DNA from 118 plants belonging to genome constitutions PS, PPS, PSS, and PPSS revealed that two had a pattern corresponding to a mixture of parental DNA while all the others had the pattern of either N. plumbaginifolia or N. sylvestris. In the latter case, the ratio of the two parental types fits 1∶1 in all the four genome constitutions studied. Since the protoplasts used in the fusion experiment were physiologically similar and the hybrid cells were not deliberately selected, these results suggest that chloroplast segregation in the somatic hybrids is independent of the chloroplast input of the fusion partners and the nuclear background of the fusion products.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-4943
    Keywords: Autophosphorylation-dependent protein kinase ; vimentin ; assembly ; phosphorylation sites ; cytoskeletal intermediate filament
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The autophosphorylation-dependent protein kinase has been identified as a potent vimentin kinase that incorporates 2 mol of phosphates per mol of protein and generates five major phosphorylation sites in vimentin. Tryptic phosphopeptide mapping by high-performance liquid chromatography followed by sequential manual Edman degradation and direct peptide sequence analysis revealed that Ser-25, Ser-38, Ser-65, and Ser-71 in the amino-terminal domain and Ser-411 in the carboxyl-terminal domain are the phosphorylation sites in vimentin phosphorylated by this kinase, indicating that autophosphorylation-dependent protein kinase is a potent and unique vimentin kinase. Functional study further revealed that phosphorylation of vimentin by autophosphorylation-dependent protein kinase can completely inhibit polymerization and assembly of the cytoskeletal intermediate filament as demonstrated by electron microscopic analysis. Taken together, the results provide initial evidence that the autophosphorylation-dependent protein kinase may function as a vimentin kinase involved in the structure-function regulation of the cytoskeletal system. The results also support the notion that this cyclic nucleotide- and calcium-independent protein kinase may function as a multisubstrate/multifunctional protein kinase involved in the regulation of diverse cell functions.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: okadaic acid ; isoforms of vimentin ; hyperphosphorylation ; dephosphorylation ; intermediate filaments ; brain tumor cells ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Okadaic acid (OA), a protein phosphatase inhibitor, was found to induce hyperphosphorylation and reorganization of vimentin intermediate filaments in 9L rat brain tumor cells. The process was dose dependent. Vimentin phosphorylation was initially enhanced by 400 nM OA in 30 min and reached maximal level (about 26-fold) when cells were treated with 400 nM OA for 90 min. Upon removal of OA, dephosphorylation of the hyperphosphory-lated vimentin was observed and the levels of phosphorylation returned to that of the controls after the cells recovered under normal growing conditions for 11 h. The phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of vimentin induced by OA concomitantly resulted in reversible reorganization of vimentin filaments and alteration of cell morphology. Cells rounded up as they were entering mitosis in the presence of OA and returned to normal appearance after 11 h of recovery. Immuno-staining with anti-vimentin antibody revealed that vimentin filaments were disassembled and clustered around the nucleus when the cells were treated with OA but subsequently returned to the filamentous states when OA was removed. Two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis further revealed that hyperphosphorylation of vimentin generated at least seven isoforms having different isoelectric points. Furthermore, the enhanced vimentin phosphorylation was accompanied by changes in the detergent-solubility of the protein. In untreated cells, the detergent-soluble and -insoluble vimentins were of equal amounts but the solubility could be increased when vimentins were hyperphosphorylated in the presence of OA. Taken together, the results indicated that OA could be involved in reversible hyperphosphorylation and reorganization of vimentin intermediate filaments, which may play an important role in the structure-function regulation of cytoskeleton in the cell.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: glucose-regulated proteins ; heat shock proteins ; heat shock ; okadaic acid ; protein phosphorylation ; vimentin ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: We have demonstrated that pretreatment but not post-treatment with okadaic acid (OA) can aggravate cytotoxicity as well as alter the kinetics of stress protein expression and protein phosphorylation in heat shocked cells. Compared to heat shock, cells recovering from 1 hr pretreatment of OA at 200 nM and cotreated with heat shock at 45°C for the last 15 min of incubation (OA→HS treatment) exhibited enhanced induction of heat shock proteins (HSPs) 70 and 110. In addition to enhanced expression, the attenuation of HSC70 and HSP90 after the induction peaks was also delayed in OA→HS-treated cells. The above treatment also resulted in the rapid induction of the 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78), which expression remained constant in cells recovering from treatment with 200 nM OA for 1 hr, heat shocked at 45°C for 15 min, or in combined treatment in reversed order (HS→OA treatment). Enhanced phosphorylation of vimentin and proteins with molecular weights of 65, 40, and 33 kDa and decreased phosphorylation of a protein with a molecular weight of 29 kDa were also observed in cells recovering from OA→HS treatment. Again, protein phosphorylation in cells recovering from HS→OA treatment did not differ from those in cells treated only with heat shock. Since the alteration in the kinetics of stress protein expression and protein phosphorylation was tightly correlated, we concluded that there is a critical link between induction of the stress proteins and phosphorylation of specific proteins. Furthermore, the rapid induction of GRP78 under the experimental condition offered a novel avenue for studying the regulation of its expression. © 1996 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: taxol ; microtubules ; vimentin ; intermediate filaments ; protein phosphorylation ; protein kinases ; inhibitors ; cytoskeleton ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Taxol, a microtubule stabilizing agent, has been extensively investigated for its antitumor activity. The cytotoxic effect of taxol is generally attributed to its antimicrotubule activity and is believed to be cell cycle dependent. Herein, we report that taxol induces hyperphosphorylation and reorganization of the vimentin intermediate filament in 9L rat brain tumor cells, in concentration- and time-dependent manner. Phosphorylation of vimentin was maximum at 10-6 M of taxol treatment for 8 h and diminished at higher (10-5 M) concentration. Enhanced phosphorylation of vimentin was detectable at 2 h treatment with 10-6 M taxol and was maximum after 12 h of treatment. Taxol-induced phosphorylation of vimentin was largely abolished in cells pretreated with staurosporine and bisindolymaleimide but was unaffected by H-89, KT-5926, SB203580, genistein, and olomoucine. Thus, protein kinase C may be involved in this process. Hyperphosphorylation of vimentin was accompanied by rounding up of cells as revealed by scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, there was a concomitant reorganization of the vimentin intermediate filament in the taxol-treated cells, whereas the microtubules and the actin microfilaments were less affected. Taken together, our data demonstrate that taxol induces hyperphosphorylation of vimentin with concomitant reorganization of the vimentin intermediate filament and that this process may be mediated via a protein kinase C signaling pathway. J. Cell Biochem. 68:472-483, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: heat shock protein ; heat shock genes ; heat shock element ; heat shock factor ; basal transcription elements ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Exposure of 9L rat brain tumor cells to 40-100 μM CdCl2 for 2 h leads to an induction of a wide spectrum of heat shock proteins (HSPs). We have demonstrated that induction of the 70-kDa HSP (HSP70) and enhanced expression of its cognate (HSC70) by cadmium are concentration dependent and that the induction kinetics of these HSP70s are different. The increased synthesis of the HSP70s is accompanied by the increase in hsp70 and hsc70 mRNA levels, indicative of transcriptional regulation of the heat shock genes. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) using probes encompassing heat shock element (HSE), TATA, GC, and CCAAT boxes derived from the promoter regions of the heat shock genes shows distinguished binding patterns between hsp70 and hsc70 genes in both control and cadmium-treated cells. The results indicate that, in addition to the HSEs, the basal transcription elements are important in the regulation of the heat shock genes. The binding patterns of the corresponding transcription factors of these elements are examined by EMSA by using extended promoter fragments from respective heat shock genes with sequential addition of excess oligonucleotides encompassing individual transcription elements. Taken together, our results show that the differential induction of hsp70 and hsc70 involves multiple transcription factors that interact with HSE, TATA, GC, and CCAAT boxes. J. Cell. Biochem. 71:21-35, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: intermediate filaments ; mitogen-activated protein ; kinase-activated protein kinase-2 ; vimentin ; okadaic acid ; phosphorylation ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Organization of intermediate filament, a major component of cytoskeleton, is regulated by protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation, which is a dynamic process governed by a balance between the activities of involved protein kinases and phosphatases. Blocking dephosphorylation by protein phosphatase inhibitors such as okadaic acid (OA) leads to an apparent activation of protein kinase(s) and to genuine activation of phosphatase-regulated protein kinase(s). Treatment of 9L rat brain tumor cells with OA results in a drastically increased phosphorylation of vimentin, an intermediate filament protein. In-gel renaturing assays and in vitro kinase assays using vimentin as the exogenous substrate indicate that certain protein kinase(s) is activated in OA-treated cells. With specific protein kinase inhibitors, we show the possible involvement of the cdc2 kinase- and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK)-mediated pathways in this process. Subsequent in vitro assays demonstrate that vimentin may serve as an excellent substrate for MAPK-activated protein kinase-2 (MAPKAPK-2), the downstream effector of p38MAPK, and that MAPKAPK-2 is activated with OA treatment. Comparative analysis of tryptic phosphopeptide maps also indicates that corresponding phosphopeptides emerged in vimentin from OA-treated cells and were phosphorylated by MAPKAPK-2. Taken together, the results clearly demonstrate that MAPKAPK-2 may function as a vimentin kinase in vitro and in vivo. These findings shed new light on the possible involvement of the p38MAPK signaling cascade, via MAPKAPK-2, in the maintenance of integrity and possible physiological regulation of intermediate filaments. J. Cell. Biochem. 71:169-181, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: heat-shock proteins ; stress response ; vimentin ; intermediate filament ; withangulatin A ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Withangulatin A induced cell rounding up and the morphological alteration resulted from the reorganization of all of the major cytoskeletal components, i.e., vimentin, tubulin, and actin, as revealed by immunofluorescence techniques. When the withangulatin A-treated cells changed to a round-up morphology, vimentin intermediate filaments were found to be collapsed and clustered around the nucleus. The alteration was accompanied by characteristic changes of vimentin molecules, including augmentation of phosphorylation, retardation of electrophoretic mobility, and decrease in detergent extractability. The levels of vimentin phosphorylation were augmented by 2.5- and 1.8-fold in cells incubated with 50 μM withangulatin A for 1 and 3 h, respectively. The electrophoretic mobility of vimentin was partially retarded in cells treated with withangulatin A for 1 h at 10 μM and a completely upshift mobility was observed after 5 h treatment at 50 μM. In addition, vimentin molecules became less extractable by nonident P-40 after the cells were treated with withangulatin A and this effect was dose dependent. The decrease in solubility of vimentin was accompanied by the redistribution of HSP72 into the detergent nonextractable fraction and these two events were well correlated. Our results suggest that withangulatin A induced the modification of vimentin, which resulted in the alteration of cell morphology and redistribution of intracellular HSP72, an event that may play an important role in the induction of heat-shock response.
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