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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2004-02-21
    Description: The Sir2 deacetylase modulates organismal life-span in various species. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Sir2 increases longevity are largely unknown. We show that in mammalian cells, the Sir2 homolog SIRT1 appears to control the cellular response to stress by regulating the FOXO family of Forkhead transcription factors, a family of proteins that function as sensors of the insulin signaling pathway and as regulators of organismal longevity. SIRT1 and the FOXO transcription factor FOXO3 formed a complex in cells in response to oxidative stress, and SIRT1 deacetylated FOXO3 in vitro and within cells. SIRT1 had a dual effect on FOXO3 function: SIRT1 increased FOXO3's ability to induce cell cycle arrest and resistance to oxidative stress but inhibited FOXO3's ability to induce cell death. Thus, one way in which members of the Sir2 family of proteins may increase organismal longevity is by tipping FOXO-dependent responses away from apoptosis and toward stress resistance.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Brunet, Anne -- Sweeney, Lora B -- Sturgill, J Fitzhugh -- Chua, Katrin F -- Greer, Paul L -- Lin, Yingxi -- Tran, Hien -- Ross, Sarah E -- Mostoslavsky, Raul -- Cohen, Haim Y -- Hu, Linda S -- Cheng, Hwei-Ling -- Jedrychowski, Mark P -- Gygi, Steven P -- Sinclair, David A -- Alt, Frederick W -- Greenberg, Michael E -- NIHP30-HD18655/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- P01 NS35138-17/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2004 Mar 26;303(5666):2011-5. Epub 2004 Feb 19.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Division of Neuroscience, Children's Hospital, and Department of Neurobiology, Center for Blood Research (CBR) Institute for Biomedical Research, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14976264" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Acetylation ; Animals ; Apoptosis ; Cell Cycle ; Cell Line ; Cell Nucleus/metabolism ; Cells, Cultured ; Cerebellum/cytology ; Forkhead Transcription Factors ; Gene Expression Profiling ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Histone Deacetylases/genetics/*metabolism ; Humans ; Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins ; Mice ; Mice, Knockout ; Neurons/cytology ; *Oxidative Stress ; Phosphorylation ; Proteins/genetics ; Recombinant Proteins/metabolism ; Sirtuin 1 ; Sirtuins/genetics/*metabolism ; Transcription Factors/genetics/*metabolism ; Transcription, Genetic
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2006-02-18
    Description: In the mammalian nervous system, neuronal activity regulates the strength and number of synapses formed. The genetic program that coordinates this process is poorly understood. We show that myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) transcription factors suppressed excitatory synapse number in a neuronal activity- and calcineurin-dependent manner as hippocampal neurons formed synapses. In response to increased neuronal activity, calcium influx into neurons induced the activation of the calcium/calmodulin-regulated phosphatase calcineurin, which dephosphorylated and activated MEF2. When activated, MEF2 promoted the transcription of a set of genes, including arc and synGAP, that restrict synapse number. These findings define an activity-dependent transcriptional program that may control synapse number during development.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Flavell, Steven W -- Cowan, Christopher W -- Kim, Tae-Kyung -- Greer, Paul L -- Lin, Yingxi -- Paradis, Suzanne -- Griffith, Eric C -- Hu, Linda S -- Chen, Chinfei -- Greenberg, Michael E -- AG05870/AG/NIA NIH HHS/ -- HD18655/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- NS28829/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 EY013613/EY/NEI NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2006 Feb 17;311(5763):1008-12.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Neurobiology Program, Children's Hospital, and Departments of Neurology and Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16484497" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Calcineurin/metabolism ; Calcium/metabolism ; Cells, Cultured ; Cytoskeletal Proteins/genetics ; Dendrites/physiology/ultrastructure ; Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials ; GTPase-Activating Proteins/genetics ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Glutamic Acid/metabolism ; Hippocampus/cytology/*physiology ; MEF2 Transcription Factors ; Mutation ; Myogenic Regulatory Factors/genetics/*physiology ; Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics ; Neurons/*physiology ; Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis ; Phosphorylation ; RNA Interference ; Rats ; Rats, Long-Evans ; Recombinant Fusion Proteins/metabolism ; Synapses/*physiology ; Synaptic Transmission ; Transcription, Genetic ; Transfection
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2008-09-26
    Description: Neuronal activity regulates the development and maturation of excitatory and inhibitory synapses in the mammalian brain. Several recent studies have identified signalling networks within neurons that control excitatory synapse development. However, less is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate the activity-dependent development of GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid)-releasing inhibitory synapses. Here we report the identification of a transcription factor, Npas4, that plays a role in the development of inhibitory synapses by regulating the expression of activity-dependent genes, which in turn control the number of GABA-releasing synapses that form on excitatory neurons. These findings demonstrate that the activity-dependent gene program regulates inhibitory synapse development, and suggest a new role for this program in controlling the homeostatic balance between synaptic excitation and inhibition.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2637532/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2637532/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Lin, Yingxi -- Bloodgood, Brenda L -- Hauser, Jessica L -- Lapan, Ariya D -- Koon, Alex C -- Kim, Tae-Kyung -- Hu, Linda S -- Malik, Athar N -- Greenberg, Michael E -- HD18655/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- NS27572/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- NS48276/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P01 NS047572/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P01 NS047572-01A10001/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P01 NS047572-020001/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P01 NS047572-030001/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P01 NS047572-040001/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- P01 NS047572-050001/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 MH091220/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS048276/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS048276-01/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS048276-02/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS048276-03/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS048276-04/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS048276-05/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007753/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2008 Oct 30;455(7217):1198-204. doi: 10.1038/nature07319. Epub 2008 Sep 24.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉F. M. Kirby Neurobiology Center, Children's Hospital and Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18815592" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/genetics/*metabolism ; Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor/metabolism ; Cells, Cultured ; Electrophysiology ; Gene Expression Regulation ; Hippocampus/cytology ; Mice ; Neurons/metabolism ; Rats ; Synapses/*metabolism ; Transcription Factors/genetics/*metabolism ; Transfection ; gamma-Aminobutyric Acid/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-06-19
    Description: Rett syndrome (RTT) is an X-linked human neurodevelopmental disorder with features of autism and severe neurological dysfunction in females. RTT is caused by mutations in methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2), a nuclear protein that, in neurons, regulates transcription, is expressed at high levels similar to that of histones, and binds to methylated cytosines broadly across the genome. By phosphotryptic mapping, we identify three sites (S86, S274 and T308) of activity-dependent MeCP2 phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of these sites is differentially induced by neuronal activity, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, or agents that elevate the intracellular level of 3',5'-cyclic AMP (cAMP), indicating that MeCP2 may function as an epigenetic regulator of gene expression that integrates diverse signals from the environment. Here we show that the phosphorylation of T308 blocks the interaction of the repressor domain of MeCP2 with the nuclear receptor co-repressor (NCoR) complex and suppresses the ability of MeCP2 to repress transcription. In knock-in mice bearing the common human RTT missense mutation R306C, neuronal activity fails to induce MeCP2 T308 phosphorylation, suggesting that the loss of T308 phosphorylation might contribute to RTT. Consistent with this possibility, the mutation of MeCP2 T308A in mice leads to a decrease in the induction of a subset of activity-regulated genes and to RTT-like symptoms. These findings indicate that the activity-dependent phosphorylation of MeCP2 at T308 regulates the interaction of MeCP2 with the NCoR complex, and that RTT in humans may be due, in part, to the loss of activity-dependent MeCP2 T308 phosphorylation and a disruption of the phosphorylation-regulated interaction of MeCP2 with the NCoR complex.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3922283/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3922283/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ebert, Daniel H -- Gabel, Harrison W -- Robinson, Nathaniel D -- Kastan, Nathaniel R -- Hu, Linda S -- Cohen, Sonia -- Navarro, Adrija J -- Lyst, Matthew J -- Ekiert, Robert -- Bird, Adrian P -- Greenberg, Michael E -- 092076/Wellcome Trust/United Kingdom -- K08 MH090306/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- K08MH90306/MH/NIMH NIH HHS/ -- P30 HD018655/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- P30-HD 18655/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/ -- R01 NS048276/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- R01NS048276/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- T32 GM007753/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2013 Jul 18;499(7458):341-5. doi: 10.1038/nature12348.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Neurobiology, Harvard Medical School, and Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23770587" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Cells, Cultured ; Co-Repressor Proteins/*metabolism ; Humans ; Methyl-CpG-Binding Protein 2/chemistry/genetics/*metabolism ; Mice ; Mutation ; Neurons/metabolism ; Phosphorylation ; Rett Syndrome/genetics ; Threonine/*metabolism ; Transcription, Genetic
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-10
    Description: Transparent devices have recently attracted substantial attention. Various applications have been demonstrated, including displays, touch screens, and solar cells; however, transparent batteries, a key component in fully integrated transparent devices, have not yet been reported. As battery electrode materials are not transparent and have to be thick enough to store energy, the traditional approach of using thin films for transparent devices is not suitable. Here we demonstrate a grid-structured electrode to solve this dilemma, which is fabricated by a microfluidics-assisted method. The feature dimension in the electrode is below the resolution limit of human eyes, and, thus, the electrode appears transparent. Moreover, by aligning multiple electrodes together, the amount of energy stored increases readily without sacrificing the transparency. This results in a battery with energy density of 10 Wh/L at a transparency of 60%. The device is also flexible, further broadening their potential applications. The transparent device configuration also allows in situ Raman study of fundamental electrochemical reactions in batteries.
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2012-09-13
    Description: Author(s): S. G. Choi, J. Hu, L. S. Abdallah, M. Limpinsel, Y. N. Zhang, S. Zollner, R. Q. Wu, and M. Law Spectroscopic ellipsometry was used to determine the pseudodielectric function 〈 ɛ 〉=〈 ɛ 1 〉+ i 〈 ɛ 2 〉 spectrum of a natural single crystal of iron pyrite (cubic FeS 2 ) from 0.5 to 4.5 eV with the sample at 77 K. The 〈 ɛ 〉 spectrum exhibits several pronounced optical features associated with the interband criti... [Phys. Rev. B 86, 115207] Published Wed Sep 12, 2012
    Keywords: Semiconductors I: bulk
    Print ISSN: 1098-0121
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-3795
    Topics: Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-06-13
    Description: The purpose of this paper was to improve the safety equipment’s effectiveness through the comparison. Firstly, the history and safety accident of London Underground and Beijing Subway were shown. Secondly, fire equipment between these two cities was compared including station’s hardware installations and carriage’s hardware installations. Thirdly, the relative software installations were also compared such as emergency drills. The results showed that Beijing Subway’s hardware installations were better than London. However, London Underground’s some installations were more effective than Beijing. Both cities would pay more attention on anti-terrorist in tunnel.
    Print ISSN: 1755-1307
    Electronic ISSN: 1755-1315
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-01-24
    Description: Fanconi anemia (FA) patients exhibit bone marrow failure, developmental defects and cancer. The FA pathway maintains chromosomal stability in concert with replication fork maintenance and DNA double strand break (DSB) repair pathways including RAD51-mediated homologous recombination (HR). RAD51 is a recombinase that maintains replication forks and repairs DSBs, but also rearranges chromosomes. Two RecQ helicases, RECQL5 and Bloom syndrome mutated (BLM) suppress HR through nonredundant mechanisms. Here we test the impact deletion of RECQL5 and BLM has on mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells deleted for FANCB, a member of the FA core complex. We show that RECQL5, but not BLM, conferred resistance to mitomycin C (MMC, an interstrand crosslinker) and camptothecin (CPT, a type 1 topoisomerase inhibitor) in FANCB-defective cells. RECQL5 suppressed, while BLM caused, breaks and radials in FANCB-deleted cells exposed to CPT or MMC, respectively. RECQL5 protected the nascent replication strand from MRE11-mediated degradation and restarted stressed replication forks in a manner additive to FANCB. By contrast BLM restarted, but did not protect, replication forks in a manner epistatic to FANCB. RECQL5 also lowered RAD51 levels in FANCB-deleted cells at stressed replication sites implicating a rearrangement avoidance mechanism. Thus, RECQL5 and BLM impact FANCB-defective cells differently in response to replication stress with relevance to chemotherapeutic regimes.
    Print ISSN: 0305-1048
    Electronic ISSN: 1362-4962
    Topics: Biology
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