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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-03-17
    Description: The integrated stress response (ISR) is a homeostatic mechanism by which eukaryotic cells sense and respond to stress-inducing signals, such as amino acid starvation. General controlled non-repressed (GCN2) kinase is a key orchestrator of the ISR, and modulates protein synthesis in response to amino acid starvation. Here we demonstrate in mice that GCN2 controls intestinal inflammation by suppressing inflammasome activation. Enhanced activation of ISR was observed in intestinal antigen presenting cells (APCs) and epithelial cells during amino acid starvation, or intestinal inflammation. Genetic deletion of Gcn2 (also known as Eif2ka4) in CD11c(+) APCs or intestinal epithelial cells resulted in enhanced intestinal inflammation and T helper 17 cell (TH17) responses, owing to enhanced inflammasome activation and interleukin (IL)-1beta production. This was caused by reduced autophagy in Gcn2(-/-) intestinal APCs and epithelial cells, leading to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), a potent activator of inflammasomes. Thus, conditional ablation of Atg5 or Atg7 in intestinal APCs resulted in enhanced ROS and TH17 responses. Furthermore, in vivo blockade of ROS and IL-1beta resulted in inhibition of TH17 responses and reduced inflammation in Gcn2(-/-) mice. Importantly, acute amino acid starvation suppressed intestinal inflammation via a mechanism dependent on GCN2. These results reveal a mechanism that couples amino acid sensing with control of intestinal inflammation via GCN2.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4854628/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4854628/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Ravindran, Rajesh -- Loebbermann, Jens -- Nakaya, Helder I -- Khan, Nooruddin -- Ma, Hualing -- Gama, Leonardo -- Machiah, Deepa K -- Lawson, Benton -- Hakimpour, Paul -- Wang, Yi-chong -- Li, Shuzhao -- Sharma, Prachi -- Kaufman, Randal J -- Martinez, Jennifer -- Pulendran, Bali -- R01 DK088227/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R01 DK103185/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R37 AI048638/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK042394/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- R37 DK057665/DK/NIDDK NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI057266/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI090023/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- ZIA ES103286-01/Intramural NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Mar 24;531(7595):523-7. doi: 10.1038/nature17186. Epub 2016 Mar 16.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Emory Vaccine Center, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, 954 Gatewood Road, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA. ; School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo 05508, Brazil. ; Department of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, School of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500 046, India. ; Division of Pathology, Yerkes National Primate Research Center, 954 Gatewood Road, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA. ; Virology Core, Emory Vaccine Center and Yerkes National Primate Research Center, 954 Gatewood Road, Atlanta, Georgia 30329, USA. ; Degenerative Disease Program, Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute, 10901 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037 USA. ; National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Mail Drop D2-01 Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26982722" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Amino Acids/administration & dosage/deficiency/*metabolism/pharmacology ; Animals ; Antigen-Presenting Cells/immunology/metabolism ; Autophagy ; Colitis/etiology/*metabolism/pathology/prevention & control ; Disease Models, Animal ; Epithelial Cells/metabolism ; Female ; Humans ; Inflammasomes/*antagonists & inhibitors/metabolism ; Inflammation/etiology/*metabolism/pathology/prevention & control ; Interleukin-1beta/immunology ; Intestines/*metabolism/*pathology ; Male ; Mice ; Microtubule-Associated Proteins/deficiency/metabolism ; Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases/deficiency/genetics/*metabolism ; Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism ; Stress, Physiological ; Th17 Cells/immunology ; Ubiquitin-Activating Enzymes/deficiency/metabolism
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1422-6375
    Source: Scientific.Net: Materials Science & Technology / Trans Tech Publications Archiv 1984-2008
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1662-9752
    Source: Scientific.Net: Materials Science & Technology / Trans Tech Publications Archiv 1984-2008
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: The zinc oxide varistors are ceramic semiconductor devices doped with some metallic oxides such as: bismuth, nickel, manganese, cobalt, and others. The aim of this work is to characterize the varistors, obtained by the Pechini’s method, regarding their microstructure and electrical features. By using chemical synthesis, it has been produced ceramic powders. The powders have been compacted in the form of pellets and sintered at 1200°C/1h. The samples have been characterized by measurements of J x E, XRD and by SEM. The results show that the powders obtained through Pechini’s synthesis method and calcined at 700ºC/1h have a particle size of less than 100 nm. The resulting microstructures show heterogeneous morphologies in a shape of pins and presence of inter and intragrain porosity. The electrically characterized results show that the produced varistors present a nonlinearity coefficient of 21 and breakdown voltage of 1590 V/cm
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1662-9752
    Source: Scientific.Net: Materials Science & Technology / Trans Tech Publications Archiv 1984-2008
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Among ceramic materials, the alumina has high importance because of itscharacteristics of resistance and refractory. The possibility to improve the finalcharacteristics of this material, open possibilities for new applications. The aim of thiswork is to synthesize (α-Al2O3) alumina powders by combustion reaction and toevaluate the effect of the urea content in the final characteristics of the α-Al2O3powders. Three compositions were studied : a) stoichiometric, b) with 10% of ureareduction and c) with 20% of urea reduction. The initial solution composition was basedon the total valence of the reagents by using chemical concepts of the propellant. Thispowders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), granulometric determinationby laser diffraction, nitrogen adsorption by BET, scanning electron microscopy (SEM),infrared spectroscopy (IR) and helium picnometer. The results showed that the ureareduction change the temperature of the reaction from 525 to 463oC , the characteristicsof the powders, and principally the reduction of the particles size
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1662-9752
    Source: Scientific.Net: Materials Science & Technology / Trans Tech Publications Archiv 1984-2008
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Ultrafine magnetic nickel ferrite particles have a significant potential for use inmany applications such as magnetic recording media, ferrofluids, microwaves, catalysis andradar-absorbing coatings [1, 2]. Nickel ferrite powders with a nominal NiFe2O4 compositionwere synthesized by combustion reaction and an evaluation was made of the effect of twodifferent conditions of synthesis on the nanostructural and magnetic characteristics of theresulting powders. Two synthesization routes were studied. The first, NFB, involved thepreparation of the powder using a Pyrex beaker heated directly on a hot plate at 480ºC untilself-ignition occurred. By the second route, NFC, the powder was obtained under the samesynthesization condition as the NFB route, but a vitreous silica basin was used. The resultingpowders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen adsorption by BET andscanning electron microscopy (SEM). The first route, NFB, proved more favorable to obtainpowders with high surface area and, hence, smaller crystalline sizes (5.70 nm) and asuperparamagnetic behavior. The NFC route confirmed the feasibility of obtaining powderswith a crystalline size of 18.00 nm and a magnetic behavior. Saturation magnetization was33.18 emu/g and the coercivity field was 25.63 Oe for powders obtained by the NFC route
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1662-9752
    Source: Scientific.Net: Materials Science & Technology / Trans Tech Publications Archiv 1984-2008
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: The aim of this work is to prepare and characterize Al2O3-ZrO2 powders by Pechinemethod and to evaluate them as supports for palladium catalysts in the selective reduction of NOwith CH4. The effect of aluminum ion on the final characteristics of the zirconia powder is alsoinvestigated. The catalytic supports were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XDR), scanningelectron microscopy (SEM) and catalytic activity. The XRD data showed the formation of tetragonalzirconia phase, with crystallite size of 6.3 and 6.1 nm for the supports prepared with 0.1 and 0.5moles of Al3+, respectively. Both supports showed porous and homogeneous agglomerates.Pd/Al2O3-ZrO2 catalysts were active NO reduction by CH4
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1662-9752
    Source: Scientific.Net: Materials Science & Technology / Trans Tech Publications Archiv 1984-2008
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: This work has as objective the synthesis for the method by combustion reaction ofcatalytic supports of α-Al2O3 modified with ZnO and Fe2O3 with and without impregnation of thespecies it activates (Ni) and your structural and morphologic characterization. The catalytic supportswere obtained by method of the synthesis da combustion reaction. The catalytic supports werecharacterized by XRD, adsorption of nitrogen by BET method and infrared. The results of XRDshowed the formation of powders with high cristalinity, characteristic picks of difraction of thephase α-Al2O3 indicating that there was the partial substitution of the ions of Al3+ for Zn2+ and Fe3+in the hexagonal net of the alumina. The impregnation of the nickel promoted an increasing in thesize of the particles, this carried to reduction of the superficial area of the same, of the volume andof the diameter of the pores of the structure of the material. Were accomplished catalytics tests inrow of seats scale. The result of catalytic tests showed that the developed catalysts in this work wereefficient in the methane conversion process
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1662-9752
    Source: Scientific.Net: Materials Science & Technology / Trans Tech Publications Archiv 1984-2008
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: The addition of zirconia to alumina can improve the chemical properties, mechanicalstability, acidity and surface area of alumina. The aim of this work is to evaluate the influence of0.005 moles of zirconia addition to the structure and morphology of alumina powders bycombustion reaction. The compositions were called AP (alpha-Al2O3) and AZ (Zr0.005Al1.995O3) andwere prepared by using a silica container with direct heating on a hot plate at 480oC until selfignition.The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction and nitrogen adsorption by BETanalysis. The composition AZ showed high surface area (47 m2/g) and small crystallite size (60nm). The alpha-alumina AP showed a wide agglomerates distribution with small agglomerates sizewhen compared with AZ composition
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. ; Stafa-Zurich, Switzerland
    Materials science forum Vol. 498-499 (Nov. 2005), p. 618-623 
    ISSN: 1662-9752
    Source: Scientific.Net: Materials Science & Technology / Trans Tech Publications Archiv 1984-2008
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Nanosized spinel nickel ferrite particles have attracted considerable attention and efforts continue to investigate them for their technological importance to the microwave industries, high speed digital tap or disk recording, repulsive suspension for use in levitated railway systems, ferrofluids, catalysis and magnetic refrigeration systems. Nanosize nickel ferrite powders (NiFe2O4) have been prepared by combustion reaction using nitrates and urea as fuel. The resulting powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed nanosize nickel ferrite powders with high specific surface area (55.21 m2/g). The powders showed extensive XRD linebroadening and the crystallite size calculated from the XRD line broadening was 18.0 nm. The samples were uniaxially compacted by dry pressing, sintered at 1200°C/2h and characterized by bulk density, SEM and magnetic properties measurements. The samples showed uniform microstructures with grain size of 4.45 μm, maximum flux density of 0.18T, field coercive of the 488 A/m, and hysteresis loss of 47.58 W/kg
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1662-9752
    Source: Scientific.Net: Materials Science & Technology / Trans Tech Publications Archiv 1984-2008
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: This work involved a morphological, microstructural and magnetic characterization ofnanosized powders and sintered samples of Ni-Zn ferrite doped with chromium. The effect ofsubstituting Fe3+ for Cr3+ on the final characteristics of the powders and sintered samples wasinvestigated. The Ni-Zn ferrite powders were prepared by combustion reaction using nitrates andurea as fuel, based on the concepts of propellant chemistry. The samples were uniaxially compactedby dry pressing (385 MPa) and sintered at 1200oC/2h, using a heating rate of 5ºC/min. The Ni-Znpowders and compacted samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electronmicroscopy (SEM), and the measures of their magnetic properties. The results revealed theformation of the cubic crystalline phase of the inverse spinel of Ni-Zn-Cr ferrite. The averagecrystallite size was 21 nm and 57 nm while the saturation magnetization was 47.0 and 73.1 emu/gfor the powder and the sintered sample, respectively
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