Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
Chemistry and Pharmacology
Abstract Sulfur fluxes from bare soils, naturally vegetated surfaces and from several agricultural crops were measured at two mid-continent sites (Ames, Iowa and Celeryville, Ohio) and from one salt water marsh site (Cedar Island, North Carolina) during a field program conducted jointly by the NOAA Aeronomy Laboratory, Washington State University Laboratory for Atmospheric Research and University of Idaho Department of Chemistry during July and August 1985. The sites were chosen specifically because they had been characterized by previous studies (Anejaet al., 1979; Adamset al., 1980, 1981). The NOAA gas chromatographic/dynamic-enclosure measurements yielded bare soil surfaces fluxes from the mid-continent sites composed predominantly of COS, H2S, CH3−S−CH3 (DMS) and CS2, all of which were strongly correlated with air temperature. Net fluxes of approximately 5 and 15 ng S/m2 min were observed in Iowa and Ohio, respectively, at appropriate weighted mean July temperatures. These fluxes are roughly a factor of 10 smaller than the earlier measurements, the greatest difference being in the measurement of the H2S flux. The presence of growing vegetation was observed to measurably increase the flux of H2S, significantly increase that of DMS and to decrease that of COS. Sulfur fluxes in the Cedar Island environs were observed to be both spatially and temporally much more variable and to include CH3SH as a measurable contributor. Net fluxes, composed predominantly of DMS and H2S, were estimated to be about 300 ngS/m2min during August; again about a factor of 10 lower than previous estimates. All measurements were corroborated to within about a factor of 2 by those of the other participating laboratories.
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