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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Images from three filters of the Voyager 1 wide angle camera are used to measure the continuum reflectivity and spectral gradient near 6000 A and the 6190 A band methane/continuum ratio for a variety of cloud features in Jupiter's atmosphere. The dark barge features in the North Equatorial Belt have anomalously strong positive continuum spectral gradients suggesting unique composition. Methane absorption is shown at unprecedented spatial scales for the Great Red Spot and its immediate environment, for a dark barge feature in the North Equatorial Belt, and for two hot spot and plume regions in the North Equatorial Belt. Methane absorption and five micrometer emission are correlated in the vicinity of the Great Red Spot but are anticorrelated in one of the plume hot spot regions. Methane absorption and simultaneous maps of five micrometer brightness temperature is quantitatively compared to realistic cloud structure models which include multiple scattering at five micrometer as well as in the visible. Variability in H2 quadrupole lines are also investigated.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NAS 1.26:173567 , NASA-CR-173567
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 2
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Preliminary results of a CCD survey designed to detect and investigate faint halos around planetary nebulae are reported. A TI 800 x 800 pixel CCD was used to take deep exposures of 44 planetary nebulae. The exposures were obtained through an H-alpha filter at the Cassegrain focus of the Palomar 1.5 m telescope. Spatial resolutions of 1 to 2 arcsec were obtained across 400 arcsec wide fields. The images, which are in many cases considerably deeper than any previously taken, reveal numerous planetary nebula halos. About two-thirds of the studied nebulae possess extensive outer halos, here defined as any extended emission beyond the 10 percent isophote. Ionized sulphur electron density measurements show that in some nebulae, the mass in the halo is comparable to the mass contained in the primary H II region. The data have been used to place constraints on the mode of origin of the halos. It is likely that the halos originate either by dynamical separation of a single ejected shell of gas or by the ejection of two or more such shells from the central star. It is possible but less likely that the halos are caused by excitation of the preplanetary stellar wind and improbable that the halos represent reflection nebulae.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 302; 727-736
    Format: text
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: The development and current status of InSb line arrays for astronomy are reviewed. Instrument concepts are currently being developed for an infrared instrument for NASA's Space Telescope which would use such detectors for both spectroscopy and imaging. Preliminary performance measurements are given for a simple pushbroom camera, using a 128-element line array, designed for operation on the 24-inch Cassegrain telescope at the JPL Table Mountain Observatory. The design and construction of the camera are described.
    Keywords: INSTRUMENTATION AND PHOTOGRAPHY
    Format: text
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: The spatial distribution of forbidden C I 9823, 9850 A emission in NGC 6720 is reported. Like forbidden O I, the forbidden C I radiation appears enhanced in the region of the bright filaments. A few percent of the carbon atoms in the filaments are neutral. The neutral fraction is consistent with ionization equilibrium calculations made under the assumption of complete shielding of direct stellar radiation by hydrogen. The observed carbon lines are excited by photoelectrons produced from hydrogen by the nebular diffuse radiation field. The forbidden C I observations confirm that the filaments in NGC 6720 are regions of locally enhanced shielding.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 268; May 15
    Format: text
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: The Voyager Imaging Experiment provided high-quality data of Jupiter and the Galilean satellites with the two flyby trajectories in March and July of 1979. Moderately accurate radiometric measurements have been made using these data. This paper evaluates the radiometric results and describes the inflight and ground geometric and radiometric correction factors. The radiometric quantities of intensity I and geometric albedo I/F are derived, and scaling factors for each of the filters are tabulated for correcting the 'calibrated' data from the Image Processing Laboratory at JPL. In addition, the key characteristics of both Voyager I and Voyager 2 cameras are tabulated.
    Keywords: SPACECRAFT INSTRUMENTATION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research; 86; Sept. 30
    Format: text
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-17
    Description: Two volcanic plumes were discovered on an image of Io taken as part of the Voyager optical navigation effort. This is the first evidence of active volcanism on any body in the solar system other than earth.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Science; 204; June 1
    Format: text
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-16
    Description: Photometric and plane polarimetric observations of the radio source Oj 287 have been made in the optical region. The photometric data show variations of 0.10 mag with a timescale of 6-7 days superposed on a total decrease of approximately 0.5 mag during February 1972. The polarimetric data, which exhibit a similar decrease in plane polarization during this same period, suggest the possibility of a periodicity with a timescale of the order of 30 days.
    Keywords: SPACE SCIENCES
    Type: Astrophysical Journal; 174; June 1
    Format: text
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: In recent years there has been an increasing interest in the imaging spectrometer concept, in which imaging is accomplished in multiple, contiguous spectral bands at typical intervals of 5 to 20 nm. There are two implementations of this concept under consideration for upcoming planetary missions. One is the scanning, or 'whisk-broom' approach, in which each picture element (pixel) of the scene is spectrally dispersed onto a linear array of detectors; the spatial information is provided by a scan mirror in combination with the vehicle motion. The second approach is the 'push-broom' imager, in which a line of pixels from the scene is spectrally dispersed onto a two-dimensional (area-array) detector. In this approach, the scan mirror is eliminated, but the optics and focal plane are more complex. This paper discusses the application of these emerging instrument concepts to the planetary program. Key issues are the trade-off between the two types of imaging spectrometer, the available data rate from a typical planetary mission, and the focal-plane cooling requirements. Specific straw-man conceptual designs for the Mars Geoscience/Climatology Orbiter (MGCO) and the Mariner Mark II Comet Rendezvous/Asteroid Flyby (CRAF) missions are discussed.
    Keywords: SPACECRAFT INSTRUMENTATION
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Images from three filters of the Voyager 1 wide angle camera are used to measure the continuum reflectivity and spectral gradient near 6000 A and the 6190 A band methane/continuum ratio for a variety of cloud features in Jupiter's atmosphere. The dark barge features in the North Equatorial Belt have anomalously strong positive continuum spectral gradients suggesting unique composition. Methane absorption is shown at unprecedented spatial scales for the Great Red Spot and its immediate environment, for a dark barge feature in the North Equatorial Belt, and for two hot spot and plume regions in the North Equatorial Belt. Methane absorption and five micrometer emission are correlated in the vicinity of the Great Red Spot but are anticorrelated in one of the plume hot spot regions. Methane absorption and simultaneous maps of five micrometer brightness temperature are quantitatively compared to realistic cloud structure models which include multiple scattering at five micrometer as well as in the visible. Variability in H2 quadrupole lines are also investigated.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Icarus (ISSN 0019-1035); 61; 311-342
    Format: text
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  • 10
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: In connection with the study of planetary nebulae, problems still exist in understanding such basic properties as three-dimensional structure, optical opacity to the central star's ionizing flux, and electron temperature and electron density variations within the nebular gas. To study these properties, two-dimensional images taken in many spectral lines are required. However, such a study presents a formidable problem in data analysis. In the present investigation, an attempt has been made to overcome the difficulties by using an imaging system which encodes the data digitally. Calibrated intensity maps could be constructed to test models of ionization structure and to produce two-dimensional maps of electron temperature and density. Both the results of a uniform-shell test and the nature of the solutions for the volume emissivity were found to support a nebular model in which the bright ring is part of a closed shell of variable density that resembles the torus proposed by Minkowski and Osterbrock (1960).
    Keywords: ASTRONOMY
    Type: Astrophysical Journal; vol. 266
    Format: text
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