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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 436 (2005), S. 647-654 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Of Aristotle's five senses, we know that sight, smell and much of taste are initiated by ligands binding to G-protein-coupled receptors; however, the mechanical sensations of touch and hearing remain without a clear understanding of their molecular basis. Recently, the relevant ...
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Metal homeostasis ; Metal resistance ; Transport ; Yeast
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The COT1 and ZRC1 genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are structurally related dosage-dependent suppressors of metal toxicity. COT1 confers increased tolerance to high levels of cobalt; ZRC1 confers increased tolerance to high levels of zinc. The two genes are not linked and have been mapped; COT1 to chromosome XV and ZRC1 to chromosome XIII. Phenotypes related to metal homeostasis have been examined in strains with varied COT1 and ZRC1 gene doses. Overexpression of COT1 confers tolerance to moderately toxic levels of zinc and ZRC1 confers tolerance to moderately toxic levels of cobalt. Strains that carry null alleles at both loci are viable. The metal-hypersensitive phenotypes of mutations in either gene are largely unaffected by changes in dosage of the other. COT1 and ZRCI function independently in conferring tolerance to their respective metals, yet the uptake of cobalt ions by yeast cells is dependent on the gene dosage of ZRC1 as well as of COT1 Strains that overexpress ZRC1 have increased uptake of cobalt ions, while ZRCI null mutants exhibit decreased cobalt uptake. The defects in cobalt uptake due to mutations at COT1 and ZRC1 are additive, suggesting that the two genes are responsible for the majority of cobalt and zinc uptake in yeast cells. The function of either gene product seems to be more important in metal homeostasis than is the GRR1 gene product, which is also involved in metal metabolism. Mutations in the GRR1 gene have no effect on the cobalt-related phenotypes of strains that have altered gene dosage of either COT1 or ZRC1.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] A ramp of suction applied to a patch excised from an E. coli giant spheroplast first activates a 1-ns conductance from MscS channels with a sustained open state (Fig. la, asterisk) and then, at higher suctions, a 3-nS flickering conductance of the MscL channels (Fig. la, inverted triangle). We have ...
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 348 (1990), S. 261-263 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Cationic amphipaths such as chlorpromazine (CPZ) cause blood cells to form cups, and anionic amphipaths, such as trinitrophenol (TNP), crenate them11,12. According to the bilayer couple hypothesis13, these shape changes are the result of preferential insertion of cationic amphipaths into the more ...
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Mutations at three loci in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been shown to confer increased sensitivity to the antimalarial and antiarrhythmic alkaloid, quinidine. Two of these groups are composed of strains carrying recessive mutations, the other group contains two dominant alleles. The largest complementation group has been designated QDS1, for increased quinidine-sensitivity. Exposure of qds1 cells to lethal concentrations of quinidine results in a novel small-budded terminal morphology in about 70% of the cells in the culture. Strains which carry qds1 alleles share other pleiotropic phenotypes. qds1 mutants are incapable of mating as α but not a cells, due to a defect in α-factor production. Homozygous diploid qds1 strains cannot sporulate. Genetic evidence indicates that QDS1 is allelic to KEX2, a precursor processing protease. Loss of QDS1 / KEX2 function results in quinidine sensitivity.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: mscL encodes a channel in Escherichia coli that is opened by membrane stretch force, probably serving as an osmotic gauge. Sequences more or less similar to mscL are found in other bacteria, but the degree of conserved function has been unclear. We subcloned and expressed these putative homologues in E. coli and examined their products under patch clamp. Here, we show that each indeed encodes a conserved mechanosensitive channel activity, consistent with the interpretation that this is an important and primary function of the protein in a wide range of bacteria. Although similar, channels of different bacteria differ in kinetics and their degree of mechanosensitivity. Comparison of the primary sequence of these proteins reveals two highly conserved regions, corresponding to domains previously shown to be important for the function of the wild-type E. coli channel, and a C-terminal region that is not conserved in all species. This structural conservation is providing insight into regions of this molecule that are vital to its role as a mechanosensitive channel and may have broader implications for the understanding of other mechanosensitive systems.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 279 (1979), S. 532-534 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The force required for motion of cilia, eukaryotic flagella and sperm tails is generated by the dynein arms, which cause sliding of adjacent peripheral microtubule doublets2"4. The dynein arms have been shown to contain Mg2+-ATPases5. The force generated by the arms can only cause the adjacent ...
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 247 (1974), S. 69-71 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The behaviour of ciliated protozoa is under the direct control of the membrane. Thus, we have efficient methods of screening for membrane mutants which rely on their behavioural peculiarities3"4. Wild-type paramecia show "avoiding reactions" to various stimuli5. This is accomplished through a ...
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 268 (1977), S. 120-124 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The net membrane current of the electrically excitable membrane of Paramecium during step depolarisations was measured using voltage-clamp techniques. The mutant, pawn B, lacks a functional Ca channel. Thus the difference between the total current measured in the wild type and the leakage and ...
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1574-6976
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: The deep roots and wide branches of the K+-channel family are evident from genome surveys and laboratory experimentation. K+-channel genes are widespread and found in nearly all the free-living bacteria, archaea and eukarya. The conservation of basic structures and mechanisms such as the K+ filter, the gate, and some of the gate's regulatory domains have allowed general insights on animal K+ channels to be gained from crystal structures of prokaryotic channels. Since microbes are the great majority of life's diversity, it is not surprising that microbial genomes reveal structural motifs beyond those found in animals. There are open-reading frames that encode K+-channel subunits with unconventional filter sequences, or regulatory domains of different sizes and numbers not previously known. Parasitic or symbiotic bacteria tend not to have K+ channels, while those showing lifestyle versatility often have more than one K+-channel gene. It is speculated that prokaryotic K+ channels function to allow adaptation to environmental and metabolic changes, although the actual roles of these channels in prokaryotes are not yet known. Unlike enzymes in basic metabolism, K+ channel, though evolved early, appear to play more diverse roles than revealed by animal research. Finding and sorting out these roles will be the goal and challenge of the near future.
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