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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-11-11
    Description: Abstract
    Description: We installed a temporary seismic network that consists of two sub-nets in order to monitor micro-seismicity at the Atacama and West Fissure Fault System in Northern Chile. The net around the West Fissure Fault System was operated during the period between November 2005 and November 2009 and again from March 2010 until March 2012. The net around the Atacama Fault System recorded from March 2010 to March 2012. Both sub-nets consist of surface stations with 3-component seismometers of type Mark L4-1Hz. The data recording is continuous at a sample rate of 200Hz, with a few time intervals recorded at only 100 Hz. Data loggers are Earth Data PR-24. Power is supplied by 60W solar panels with a 12V battery backup. The seismic monitoring system around the West Fissure Fault System covers an area of approx. 100 times 80 km at elevations between 3000m and 5000m a.s.l. and consists of an average of 11 seismic stations. The seismic monitoring system around the Atacama Fault System covers an area of approx. 40 times 30km around the Salar Grande salt lake at elevations between 600m and 1000m a.s.l. and consists of 10 surface stations. The network recorded waveforms of over 7,000 weak seismic events. These microearthquakes witness a variety of seismogenic processes such as deformation due to tectonic stress, fluid migration or metamorphic mineral reactions. They occur along major fault zones mapped at the surface, in the continental crust, at the interface between the South American and the Nazca plate and in the oceanic crust and mantle. Waveform data is available from the GEOFON data centre, under network code 8F, and is {embargoed until Jan 2022}.
    Keywords: Broadband seismic waveforms ; Seismic monitoring ; Monitoring system ; Seismological stations
    Type: Other , Seismic Network
    Format: Greater than 1.8 TB
    Format: SEED data
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: Ceanothus ; chaparral ; nitrogen fixation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Nitrogen fixation in excised root nodules of 2-year-old, postfireCeanothus tomentosus andC. leucodermis seedlings was measured over an 8-month period using the acetylene reduction method. High levels of NO3−N and NH4−N present in postfire soils were limited to the upper 10 cm and did not inhibit nodulation in these deeper-rooting seedlings. Decreases in acetylene reduction activity occurred with decreased soil moisture and increased soil temperature. Nitrogen gains from these two Ceanothus shrub seedlings totalled 1.6 kg N ha−1 yr−1.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Plant and soil 131 (1991), S. 225-228 
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: coarse roots ; fine roots ; root distribution ; root:shoot ratio
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract The deciduous tropical dry forest at Chamela (Jalisco, Mexico) occurs in a seasonal climate with eight rainless (November through June) and four wet months (700 mm annual precipitation). The forest reaches a mean height of 10 m. Tree density in the research area was 4700 trees per ha with a basal area at breast height of 23 m2 per ha. The above-and below-ground biomass of trees, shrubs, and lianas was 73.6 Mg ha−1 and 31 Mg ha−1, respectively. A root:shoot biomass ratio of 0.42 was calculated. Nearly two thirds of all roots occur in the 0–20 cm soil layer and 29% of all roots have a diameter of less than 5 mm.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: Carbon ; Competition ; Isotope ; Mosses ; Nitrogen ; Soil microbes ; Tundra ; Vascular plants
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary The objective was to measure the competition for nitrogen among vascular plants, mosses, and soil microbes along a continuum of nitrogen availability, induced by carbon and nitrogen amendments, in a tussock tundra ecosystem.15N was used as a tracer. Vascular plants showed an increasing15N recovery with increasing time and with increasing nitrogen availability; the latter suggests that nitrogen was limiting vascular plant growth. Green mosses took up15N initially, but showed no significant trends with either treatment or time. There was a higher15N recovery in the soil insoluble compartment for the carbon-amended treatment than in the nitrogen-amended treatments; this suggested that carbon as an energy source limited microbial activity. After two months, the relative15N recovery fell in the order: soil microbes (≈79%)〉vascular plants (≈16%) 〉green mosses (≈2%).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Plant and soil 71 (1983), S. 395-399 
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: Betula nana ; Fine roots ; Leaf area ; Ledum palustre ; Root surface area ; Tundra dwarf shrubs ; Tussock ; Vaccinium uliginosum
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary Individual shoots of the shrubsLedum palustre L.,Vaccinium uliginosum L., andBetula nana L. were severed from their parent plants beneath the moss surface in an Alaskan tussock tundra. These shoots remained one year in their original position in peat moss cushions without further disturbance. After this period fine root dry weight, fine root surface area, leaf dry weight, and leaf area of these shoots were measured and compared with equivalent values from unsevered control shoots. Dry weight ratios of fine roots/leaves were similar in cut and control shoots, with the exception ofB. nana. The fine root surface/leaf area ratios showed significant differences between control and cut shoots except inL. palustre. Without tedious rootlet extractions it should be possible to estimate fine root surface area from leaf area ofL. palustre.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: Adenostoma sparsifolium ; Brush fire ; Chaparral ; Fine roots ; Ingrowth cores ; Root biomass ; Soil cores
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary In December 1981 a 2 ha site of 54-yr southern California chaparral was burned. A frequent species on this site wasAdenostoma sparsifolium. This shrub regenerates after fire with stump sprouting. The total fine root (diam. 〈1.0 mm) density of the matureA. sparsifolium stand was estimated to be 50–100 g m−2. This value was obtained in late summer. At this time fine root density in chaparral is at its lowest. In the growing season after the burn no signs for reduced fine root density were detected. Indeed, indications for a fire-enchanced flush of fine root growth were found.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-5052
    Keywords: Core extraction ; Deciduous dry forest ; Dry sieving ; Fine roots ; Fine-root production ; Small roots
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Very limited information regarding fine-root growth and production of tropical dry forests is available. Fine roots and small roots are defined as rootlets with diameters 〈 1 mm and 1.1 to 5 mm, respectively. Live and dead fine-and small-root mass fluctuations were studied over one year by means of soil core analyses in the deciduous dry forest of Chamela, Mexico, at 19° 30′, 2 km inland from the Pacific Ocean. By means of systematically varying the distance of soil core extraction points from tree stems, it was shown that random core collection is justified. A difference between fine-root biomass on south and north facing slopes was documented, although this difference was significant only during the rainy season. The live/dead ratio of fine roots was highest during the rainy period. The annual fine-root production for 1989 was estimated at 4.23 Mg ha-1 by summing significant fine-root biomass changes between sampling dates. This value is higher than most of the comparable data from other ecosystems.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Plant and soil 65 (1982), S. 193-201 
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: Alfisol ; Fine root ; Humid tropics ; Precipitation ; Root growth ; Root tip ; Shoot flush ; Theobroma cacao
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary Fine-root density in a mature cacao plantation in Bahia/Brazil was monitored at weekly intervals from October, 1980 until March, 1981. About 40 g m−2 of fine roots (diameter〈1 mm) were found during this period. The relative stability of this value over the six months period contrasted with significant changes in the number of growing root tips per unit of soil volume. These changes were not conditioned by the rainfall pattern although low root tip values were counted at the end of a minor drought period. A significant negative correlation was found between a shoot growth flush in January and the activity of the fine-root systems as measured by the number of new root tips.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Tussock tundra ; Sphagnum ; Growth ; Tundra
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary In the foothills of the Philip Smith Mountains, Brooks Range, Alaska, tussock tundra occurs on rolling hills and in valleys that were shaped by Pleistocene glaciations. During the 1986 and 1987 summer seasons, Sphagnum growth and production were determined in “water tracks” on tundra slopes that acted to channel water flow to the valley bottom stream and in “intertrack tundra” areas that were relatively homogeneous with respect to downslope drainage. Measurements were made under ambient environmental conditions and on mosses receiving supplemental irrigation in each area. Growth rate for Sphagnum spp. (cm shoot length increase/day) was low and relatively constant in intertrack tundra and highest but quite variable in water tracks. A strong negative correlation was found between Sphagnum spp. growth rate and solar irradiance in the shady environment below Salix canopies in the water tracks. Estimates of net annual dry weight (DW) production for Sphagnum spp. ranged from 0.10 g DW dm-2 yr-1 in intertrack tundra vegetation to 1.64 g DW dm-2 yr-1 in well-shaded water tracks. Experimental water additions had little effect on growth and production in intertrack tundra and well-developed water tracks, but significantly increased growth in a weakly-developed water track community. Low production over large areas of tundra slopes may occur due to presence of slow growing species resistant to dessication in intertrack tundra as opposed to rapidly growing less compact species within the limited extent of water tracks. We hypothesize that species capable of rapid growth occur also in weakly-developed water tracks, and that these are water-limited more often than plants occurring in well-developed water track situations. Where experienced, high light intensity may additionally limit growth due to photoinhibition.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 1984-01-27
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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