The Inter-Sectoral Impact Model Intercomparison Project (ISIMIP) provides a framework for the collation of a set of consistent, multi-sector, multi-scale climate-impact simulations, based on scientifically and politically-relevant historical and future scenarios. This framework serves as a basis for robust projections of climate impacts, as well as facilitating model evaluation and improvement, allowing for improved estimates of the biophysical and socio-economic impacts of climate change at different levels of global warming. It also provides a unique opportunity to consider interactions between climate change impacts across sectors.ISIMIP2a is the second ISIMIP simulation round, focusing on historical simulations (1971-2010) of climate impacts on agriculture, fisheries, permafrost, biomes, regional and global water and forests. This will serve as a basis for model evaluation and improvement, allowing for improved estimates of the biophysical and socio-economic impacts of climate change at different levels of global warming.In the regional water sector, future simulations of climate-change impacts were also carried out, using climate data from five global climate models (GCMs: HadGEM2-ES, IPSL-CM5A-LR, MIROC-ESM-CHEM, GFDL-ESM2M and NorESM1-M) for the four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs: RCP2.6, RCP4.5, RCP6.0 and RCP8.5).The focus topic for ISIMIP2a is model evaluation and validation, in particular with respect to the representation of impacts of extreme weather events and climate variability. During this phase, four common global observational climate data sets were provided across all impact models and sectors. In addition, appropriate observational data sets of impacts for each sector were collected, against which the models can be benchmarked. Access to the input data for the impact models is provided through a central ISIMIP archive (see https://www.isimip.org/gettingstarted/#input-data-bias-correction).This entry refers to the ISIMIP2a simulation data from regional hydrology models (river basins in brackets):HBV-CMA (Yangtze)HBV-IWW (Tagus)HBV-JLU (Rhine, Ganges, Mississippi)HBV-PIK (Rhine, Niger, Yellow, Blue Nile, Amazon)HYMOD-JLU (Rhine, Ganges, Mississippi)HYMOD-UFZ (Rhine, Niger, Blue Nile, Ganges, Yellow, Darling, Mississippi, Amazon)HYPE (Rhine, Tagus, Niger, Ganges, Lena, Mackenzie)mHM (Rhine, Niger, Blue Nile, Ganges, Yellow, Darling, Mississippi, Amazon)SWAP (Rhine, Tagus, Niger, Ganges, Yellow, Yangtze; Lena, Darling, MacKenzie, Mississippi, Amazon)SWAT (Yangtze; Darling; Blue Nile; Amazon; Mississippi; Niger)SWIM (Rhine, Yellow, Mississippi; Niger; Lena; Tagus; Blue Nile; Yangtze; Ganges, Amazon)VIC (Tagus, Blue Nile, Yellow, Lena, Darling, Amazon, MacKenzie; Rhine, Niger, Mississippi; Ganges; Yangtze)VIP (Yellow)WaterGAP3 (Rhine, Tagus, Niger, Blue Nile, Ganges, Yellow, Lena, Mississippi)ECOMAG (Lena, MacKenzie)
The ISIMIP2a water (regional) outputs are based on simulations from 15 regional hydrology models (see listing) according to the ISIMIP2a protocol (https://www.isimip.org/protocol/#isimip2a). The models simulate hydrological processes and dynamics (part of the models also considering human water abstractions and reservoir regulation) based on climate and physio-geographical information. A more detailed description of the models and model-specific amendments of the protocol are available here: https://www.isimip.org/impactmodels/.