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  • 1
    Call number: ZSP-201-84/5
    In: CRREL Report, 84-5
    Description / Table of Contents: Diatom species composition and relative abundances were determined for ice cores obtained from Weddell Sea pack ice during the October-November 1981 Weddell Polynya Expedition (WEPOLEX). Ice thickness and salinity indicate that the ice was less than one year old. The predominant ice type (70%) was frazil, which has the capacity to mechanically incorporate biological material through nucleation and scavenging. Diatoms were found throughout the length of the cores. Species showed down-core fluctuations in abundance that appeared to be correlated with changes in ice type. Pennate forms were more abundant than centrics, the average ratio being 16:1. Diatom frustules with intact organic material were more abundant (5 billion cells/liter). Differences in species abundances are attributed initially to incorporation of algal cells from a temporally changing water column and subsequently to diatom reproduction within the ice. Scanning electron micrographs illustrating the morphologic characteristics of the predominant species are included.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 46 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 84-5
    Language: English
    Note: Contents Abstract Preface Introduction Materials and methods Results Discussion Conclusions Literature cited Appendix A: Taxonomic terms Appendix B: Differences in species composition and abundance in duplicate samples examined under optical and inverted light microscopes Appendix C: Morphologic descriptions and SEM micrographs
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  • 2
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Materiel Command, Terrestrial Sciences Center, Cold Regions Research & Engineering Laboratory
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-202-264
    In: Research report
    Description / Table of Contents: CONTENTS: Preface. - Abstract. - Introduction. - Physical properties of ice fog. - Mie scattering computations. - Results. - Literature cited.
    Description / Table of Contents: Ice-fog crystals consisting of many spherical particles, and some hexagonal plates and columns, were observed at ambient temperatures of about -40°C in the Fairbanks, Alaska area during mid-winter. The concentrations and the size distributions of the ice-fog crystals were measured. The attenuation and backscattering of infrared radiation by ice-fog crystals were computed for optical wavelengths of 2.2[My], 2.7[My], 4.5[My], 5.75[My], 9.7[My] and 10.9[My] using the Mie theory. The minimum attenuation coefficients and backscattering functions of ice fog were found to be at 9.7[My] wavelength in the observed wavelengths. Optical attenuation coefficients and volume backscattering functions of water fogs were also computed using the Mie theory. The minimum attenuation coefficients and backscattering functions of water fog were found to be at 10.9[My] wavelength in the region of 2.2[My], 2.7[My], 4.5[My], 5.75[My], 9.7[My] and 10.9[My]. Both the attenuation coefficients and backscattering functions of ice fog are within the same order of magnitude as water fog for equivalent fog concentrations and wavelengths.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 7 S. : Ill.
    Series Statement: Research report / Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, CRREL, US Army Material Command 264
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  • 3
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Materiel Command, Terrestrial Sciences Center, Cold Regions Research & Engineering Laboratory
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-202-245
    In: Research report
    Description / Table of Contents: CONTENTS: Preface. - Abstract. - Introduction. - Snow crystals in Greenland. - Microspherules. - Microspherules in snow and ice-fog crystals. - Concentration and radii of spherules. - Discussion and conclusions. - Literature cited.
    Description / Table of Contents: Spherules found in snow crystals, ice-fog crystals, fallout particles, and fly ash were studied with an electron microscope using the electron diffraction method. The central part of the residues of 1004 specimens of natural snow crystals from Greenland, the United States, and Japan were examined; 14 spherules 0.1 to 1.5? in radius were found among them. The residues of 658 artificial ice-fog crystals formed from water vapor in flue gases of coal-burning electric power plants at Fairbanks, Alaska, were also examined; nine spherules were found. Spherules similar to those found in ice-fog residues were found in furnace-produced fly ash fallout at Fairbanks, Alaska. Electron and optical microscope examination of spherules found in Greenland snow reveals a size distribution of the form dN/d(log r) = Cr-ß where ß approximately 3. The properties of spherules and the mean mass of snow crystals from Greenland are described. The electron microscope study indicated that less than 0.7% of the 1004 snow crystals contained spherules of possible extraterrestrial origin, and that snow crystals are formed mainly on clay mineral particles by heterogeneous nucleation.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 10 S. : Ill.
    Series Statement: Research report / Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, CRREL, US Army Material Command 245
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  • 4
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Materiel Command, Terrestrial Sciences Center, Cold Regions Research & Engineering Laboratory
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-202-258
    In: Research report
    Description / Table of Contents: During the summer of 1965, the CRREL cloud physics group carried out a study of fog modification by propane and dry ice seeding on the Greenland Ice Cap, an area with one of the lowest concentrations of atmospheric pollution on earth. The nuclei of supercooled fog droplets before seeding were observed using electron microscopy and electron diffraction methods. The nuclei of ice crystals formed by dry ice and propane seeding were also observed using the same technique. The nuclei of the supercooled fog droplets and the ice crystals formed by seeding were found to be hygroscopic sea salt particles that were easily distinguished from the clay mineral nuclei of natural snow crystals. The sublimation temperature of carbon dioxide is -78.5°C The boiling point of liquid propane is -44.5°C at 1 atm pressure. It is concluded that the ice nucleation of supercooled fog by dry ice and liquid propane seeding is due to thermal effects.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 9 S. : Ill.
    Series Statement: Research report / Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, CRREL, US Army Material Command 258
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  • 5
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-201-79/28
    In: CRREL Report, 79-28
    Description / Table of Contents: Transmission and scanning electron micrographs of Umiat bentonite revealed thin, mica-like grains with irregular shapes. Most of the bentonite showed electron diffraction ring patterns, but some showed hexagonal net patterns as well as ring patterns. The lengths of the unit cells were calculated to be 5.18 A along the a-axis and 8.97 A along the b-axis. Semiquantitative analyses were made using an energy dispersive spectrometer. Common elements such as Si, Ti, Al, Fe, Mg, Na and K were determined. The molecular ratio of SiO2:Al2O3 was calculated to be 492:100 for the bulk sample, indicating that Umiat bentonite is similar in most respects to Wyoming bentonite, and is classified as a mont-morillonite. The microstructure of frozen Umiat bentonite was observed at a specimen temperature of -100 C using a scanning electron microscope equipped with a cold stage. Frozen bentonite and segregated ice patterns formed from wet bentonite were examined using an X-ray map and Si X-ray line scan. Sublimation processes of ice in the frozen bentonite were observed at specimen temperatures of -60 and -80 C. After sublimation of the ice the bentonite displayed a honeycomb structure. It was concluded that the freezing-sublimation cycle in frozen soil increases the permeability of water vapor due to the three-dimensional structure of the coagulated clay formed by freezing.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iii, 14 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 79-28
    Language: English
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  • 6
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Hanover, NH : U. S. Cold Regions Res. and Eng. Laboratory
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-201-78/20
    In: CRREL Report, 78-20
    Description / Table of Contents: Measurements of the concentrations of Aitken nuclei in maritime air were made near Barrow, Alaska, in June 1975 with a modified Nolan-Pollack small-particle detector. The concentrations varied from 50 to 300 particles /cc depending upon meteorological conditions. The mean Aitken nuclei count was 100 particles /cc for diameters greater than .002 micrometers. Transmission electron micrographs of aerosols in maritime air near Barrow were taken. The size range was measured to be 0.01 to 2.5 micrometers in diameter with the most frequently observed diameter being 0.04 micrometers. The volume of the maritime air and the collection efficiency of aerosol particles on filmed grids for electron microscopy were measured. The aerosol concentrations were found to be 76 to 101 particles /cc; the mean concentration was calculated to be 87 particles /cc. The aerosol particles in the maritime air were identified by electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction analysis. About 20% of the aerosol particles were identified, and 80% of the particles were too small for electron diffraction analysis. Sea salt particles constituted 2% of the total, and clay minerals 3%; these particles were considered to be of natural origin. Solid combustion by-products such as coagulated carbon particles and flyash particles constituted 16%. Despite the comparative remoteness of the sampling site, the measurements indicate that many anthropogenic aerosols were found using an electron microscope
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 48 S. : Ill.
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 78-20
    Language: English
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pure and applied geophysics 36 (1957), S. 169-181 
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Summary Experimental work was conducted in an igloo, half way up Mt. Taisetsu (1050 m), Mt. Tokachi (1030 m) and Mt. Okuteine (820 m) in Hokkaido. One solid nucleus (center nucleus) was observed almost always in the central portion of a snow crystal. From their electron micro-diffraction patterns, the materials of the nuclei were classified into three kinds; a single crystal, polycrystalline or amorphous substances. The patterns of the single crystal gave a hexagonal cross grating, the atomic arrangement in their basal plane had some similarity to that of an ice crystal. Some polycrystalline center nuclei were small sea salt, particles. Their shape was similar to that of the nuclei of sea sprays, and their patterns coincide with that of the sea salt. Some amorphous center nuclei were observed which looked like a liquid droplet under the operating condition of the electron-microscope. It seemed that they are chemical components in the sea salt such as KCl or MgCl particles. In the other parts of snow crystal, many smaller nuclei (condensation nuclei) were observed. These nuclei are also aerosols in the atmosphere; their size was 0.1∼0.01 μ in diameter. They gave the Debye-Scherrer ring; their patterns were different in each specimen. Their materials consist of various substances. From these data, the origin of nuclei and the mode of action of center nucleus were discussed.
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 1988-01-01
    Description: In previous work, particle analyses of fresh snow and ice cores from Camp Century, Greenland, were conducted by transmission electron-microscopy. The particles found most frequently were silicate minerals 0.05-8 μm diameter (Kumai 1977). The mean pH of snow in Ellesmere Island (81 °N, 73°W) was 5.23 for 1954-80 (Koerner and Fisher 1982). The mean pH of snow in Hanover, NH, was 4.61 for 1972-73 and 4.48 for 1980-83. The mean pH of snow in a rural area near Fairbanks, Alaska, was 5.60 for 1972-73 (Kumai 1985). In this paper, the results of measurement of pH, electrolytic conductivity, aerosol concentration and elemental analysis of aerosols in snow and ice cores from Greenland are described and compared with those of snow from Alaska, the Canadian Arctic and New Hampshire. The snow samples were collected at Dye 3, Greenland, from 17 to 250 cm depth; they were deposited during snowfalls from January 1980 to spring 1983. A total of 45 snow samples was examined; the samples were each about 65 g and collected at 5 cm intervals in the snow pit. The snow and ice-core samples were melted in a microwave oven for measurements of pH and electrolytic conductivity. A pH meter (Solution Analyzer, model 4505A) was calibrated by two buffer solutions of pH 4.00 and 7.00 at 25 °C. Two instruments were used for electrolytic conductivity measurements, Solution Analyzer, model 4505A, and Conductance Bridge RCM 1581, and calibrated by a standard solution of 0.005 N KC1 (720 ± 1 (μS cm−1) at 25°C. The snow and ice melt-water samples were filtered through polycarbonate membrane filters of 0.4 μm pore diameter. Particles remaining on the filters dried in a vacuum oven at 30°C, and the aerosol concentrations measured by chemical balance. The aerosols on the filters were coated by Au and Pd vapor in a vacuum chamber, for examination by scanning electron-microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. Results of melted snow measurements from Greenland were as follows. The pH ranged from 4.57 to 5.01; the mean pH was 4.81 in 1981. For 1982 the pH ranged from 4.72 to 4.93; the mean was 4.81. For 1983, the pH ranged from 4.50 to 5.20; the mean was 4.85. The mean pH of all snow from Greenland was lower than that of snow in a rural area of the Alaskan and Canadian Arctic, but higher than that of snow in New Hampshire. Electrolytic conductivity of snow from Greenland varied from 3.95 to 9.70 μS cm−1 for 1981, and the mean was 6.20 μS cm−1. In 1982 it ranged from 3.21 to 8.53 μS cm−1; the mean was 5.12 μS cm−1. For 1983, it ranged from 3.40 to 6.19 μS cm−1; the mean was 4.95 μS cm1. The mean electrolytic conductivity of snow from Greenland was much lower than that of snow in Hanover, New Hampshire. Concentrations of particulate matter in snow from Greenland ranged from 0.24 to 2.40 mg kg−1; the mean was 1.37 mg kg−1. The particulate matter was examined by scanning electron-microscopy. Several kinds of silicate minerals, spherules and unidentified organic particles were found. Spherules found in the snow samples are glass, Fe-, Ti- and Ca-rich, and considered to be fly-ash particles from coal combustion.
    Print ISSN: 0260-3055
    Electronic ISSN: 1727-5644
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 1985-01-01
    Description: Snow crystals scavenge aerosols in the atmosphere during the processes of growth and precipitation. Several kinds of flyash are found in acid snow by scanning electron microscope examination. Flyash particles from coal fired electric power plants in Fairbanks, Alaska, were found to be spherical or irregular in shape with a 0.2 to 50μm diameter, and were rich in calcium, silicon, aluminum and iron. The pH of 35 snow samples in Fairbanks ranged from 5.60 to 7.48. The acid snow was changed to alkaline snow by dry fallout of calcium-rich flyash from the electric power plants, which were using calcium-rich Alaskan coal. Flyash particles from three oil fired heating plants in Hanover, New Hampshire, were spherical and 10 to 80 μm in diameter, with gas escape holes, and were always sulfur rich. The pH values of fresh snow from 44 snowfalls were measured to range from pH 3.96 to 5.45 in Hanover. The mean hydrogen ion concentration was calculated to be 10-4 48 mol/L for 22 snowfalls in 1980-84, and 10-4 mol/L for 22 snowfalls in 1972-73.
    Print ISSN: 0260-3055
    Electronic ISSN: 1727-5644
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 1990-02-01
    Print ISSN: 0169-8095
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-2895
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Elsevier
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