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  • 1
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Materiel Command, Terrestrial Sciences Center, Cold Regions Research & Engineering Laboratory
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-202-245
    In: Research report
    Description / Table of Contents: CONTENTS: Preface. - Abstract. - Introduction. - Snow crystals in Greenland. - Microspherules. - Microspherules in snow and ice-fog crystals. - Concentration and radii of spherules. - Discussion and conclusions. - Literature cited.
    Description / Table of Contents: Spherules found in snow crystals, ice-fog crystals, fallout particles, and fly ash were studied with an electron microscope using the electron diffraction method. The central part of the residues of 1004 specimens of natural snow crystals from Greenland, the United States, and Japan were examined; 14 spherules 0.1 to 1.5? in radius were found among them. The residues of 658 artificial ice-fog crystals formed from water vapor in flue gases of coal-burning electric power plants at Fairbanks, Alaska, were also examined; nine spherules were found. Spherules similar to those found in ice-fog residues were found in furnace-produced fly ash fallout at Fairbanks, Alaska. Electron and optical microscope examination of spherules found in Greenland snow reveals a size distribution of the form dN/d(log r) = Cr-ß where ß approximately 3. The properties of spherules and the mean mass of snow crystals from Greenland are described. The electron microscope study indicated that less than 0.7% of the 1004 snow crystals contained spherules of possible extraterrestrial origin, and that snow crystals are formed mainly on clay mineral particles by heterogeneous nucleation.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 10 S. : Ill.
    Series Statement: Research report / Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, CRREL, US Army Material Command 245
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  • 2
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Materiel Command, Terrestrial Sciences Center, Cold Regions Research & Engineering Laboratory
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-202-264
    In: Research report
    Description / Table of Contents: CONTENTS: Preface. - Abstract. - Introduction. - Physical properties of ice fog. - Mie scattering computations. - Results. - Literature cited.
    Description / Table of Contents: Ice-fog crystals consisting of many spherical particles, and some hexagonal plates and columns, were observed at ambient temperatures of about -40°C in the Fairbanks, Alaska area during mid-winter. The concentrations and the size distributions of the ice-fog crystals were measured. The attenuation and backscattering of infrared radiation by ice-fog crystals were computed for optical wavelengths of 2.2[My], 2.7[My], 4.5[My], 5.75[My], 9.7[My] and 10.9[My] using the Mie theory. The minimum attenuation coefficients and backscattering functions of ice fog were found to be at 9.7[My] wavelength in the observed wavelengths. Optical attenuation coefficients and volume backscattering functions of water fogs were also computed using the Mie theory. The minimum attenuation coefficients and backscattering functions of water fog were found to be at 10.9[My] wavelength in the region of 2.2[My], 2.7[My], 4.5[My], 5.75[My], 9.7[My] and 10.9[My]. Both the attenuation coefficients and backscattering functions of ice fog are within the same order of magnitude as water fog for equivalent fog concentrations and wavelengths.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 7 S. : Ill.
    Series Statement: Research report / Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, CRREL, US Army Material Command 264
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  • 3
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Materiel Command, Terrestrial Sciences Center, Cold Regions Research & Engineering Laboratory
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-202-258
    In: Research report
    Description / Table of Contents: During the summer of 1965, the CRREL cloud physics group carried out a study of fog modification by propane and dry ice seeding on the Greenland Ice Cap, an area with one of the lowest concentrations of atmospheric pollution on earth. The nuclei of supercooled fog droplets before seeding were observed using electron microscopy and electron diffraction methods. The nuclei of ice crystals formed by dry ice and propane seeding were also observed using the same technique. The nuclei of the supercooled fog droplets and the ice crystals formed by seeding were found to be hygroscopic sea salt particles that were easily distinguished from the clay mineral nuclei of natural snow crystals. The sublimation temperature of carbon dioxide is -78.5°C The boiling point of liquid propane is -44.5°C at 1 atm pressure. It is concluded that the ice nucleation of supercooled fog by dry ice and liquid propane seeding is due to thermal effects.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 9 S. : Ill.
    Series Statement: Research report / Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, CRREL, US Army Material Command 258
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  • 4
    Call number: ZSP-201-84/5
    In: CRREL Report, 84-5
    Description / Table of Contents: Diatom species composition and relative abundances were determined for ice cores obtained from Weddell Sea pack ice during the October-November 1981 Weddell Polynya Expedition (WEPOLEX). Ice thickness and salinity indicate that the ice was less than one year old. The predominant ice type (70%) was frazil, which has the capacity to mechanically incorporate biological material through nucleation and scavenging. Diatoms were found throughout the length of the cores. Species showed down-core fluctuations in abundance that appeared to be correlated with changes in ice type. Pennate forms were more abundant than centrics, the average ratio being 16:1. Diatom frustules with intact organic material were more abundant (5 billion cells/liter). Differences in species abundances are attributed initially to incorporation of algal cells from a temporally changing water column and subsequently to diatom reproduction within the ice. Scanning electron micrographs illustrating the morphologic characteristics of the predominant species are included.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 46 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 84-5
    Language: English
    Note: Contents Abstract Preface Introduction Materials and methods Results Discussion Conclusions Literature cited Appendix A: Taxonomic terms Appendix B: Differences in species composition and abundance in duplicate samples examined under optical and inverted light microscopes Appendix C: Morphologic descriptions and SEM micrographs
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  • 5
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-201-78/20
    In: CRREL Report, 78-20
    Description / Table of Contents: Abstract: Measurements of the concentrations of Aitken nuclei in maritime air were made near Barrow, Alaska, in June 1975 with a modified Nolan-Pollack small-particle detector. The concentrations varied from 50 to 300 particles cm^-3 depending upon meteorological conditions. The mean Aitken nuclei count was 100 particles cm^-3 for diameters greater than 2 x 10^-3 μm. Transmission electron micrographs of aerosols in maritime air near Barrow were taken. The size range was measured to be 0.01 to 2.5 μm in diameter with the most frequently observed diameter being 0.04 μm. The volume of the maritime air and the collection efficiency of aerosol particles on filmed grids for electron microscopy were measured. The aerosol concentrations were found to be 76 to 101 particles cm^-3 ; the mean concentration was calculated to be 87 particles cm^-3. The aerosol particles in the maritime air were identified by electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction analysis. About 20% of the aerosol particles were identified, and 80% of the particles were too small for electron diffraction analysis. Sea salt particles constituted 2% of the total, and clay minerals 3%; these particles were considered to be of natural origin. Solid combustion by-products such as coagulated carbon particles and fly ash particles constituted 16%. Despite the comparative remoteness of the sampling site, the measurements indicate that many anthropogenic aerosols were found using an electron microscope.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 48 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 78-20
    Language: English
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  • 6
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Hanover, NH : U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory
    Associated volumes
    Call number: ZSP-201-79/28
    In: CRREL Report, 79-28
    Description / Table of Contents: Transmission and scanning electron micrographs of Umiat bentonite revealed thin, mica-like grains with irregular shapes. Most of the bentonite showed electron diffraction ring patterns, but some showed hexagonal net patterns as well as ring patterns. The lengths of the unit cells were calculated to be 5.18 A along the a-axis and 8.97 A along the b-axis. Semiquantitative analyses were made using an energy dispersive spectrometer. Common elements such as Si, Ti, Al, Fe, Mg, Na and K were determined. The molecular ratio of SiO2:Al2O3 was calculated to be 492:100 for the bulk sample, indicating that Umiat bentonite is similar in most respects to Wyoming bentonite, and is classified as a mont-morillonite. The microstructure of frozen Umiat bentonite was observed at a specimen temperature of -100 C using a scanning electron microscope equipped with a cold stage. Frozen bentonite and segregated ice patterns formed from wet bentonite were examined using an X-ray map and Si X-ray line scan. Sublimation processes of ice in the frozen bentonite were observed at specimen temperatures of -60 and -80 C. After sublimation of the ice the bentonite displayed a honeycomb structure. It was concluded that the freezing-sublimation cycle in frozen soil increases the permeability of water vapor due to the three-dimensional structure of the coagulated clay formed by freezing.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iii, 14 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 79-28
    Language: English
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  • 7
    Call number: ZSP-202-100
    In: Research report / Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, 100
    Description / Table of Contents: From the Summary: During the summer of 1960, observations were made of ground fog on the Greenland Ice Cap and of sea fog in the Thule area in northwestern Greenland. A microscope-stage-fog impactor was designed, and its collection efficiency determined both empirically and by computation from the theoretical work of Langmuir and Blodgett (1946). The empirical efficiency was found to be considerably greater than the theoretical efficiency.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: iv, 13 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: Research report / Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory 100
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Preface Summary Introduction Method Design and operation of the impactor Collection efficiency Computation from theoretical values of Langmuir and Blodgett Empirical values Observations and results Fog on the ice cap Sea fog near Thule Discussion Conclusions References
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Pure and applied geophysics 36 (1957), S. 169-181 
    ISSN: 1420-9136
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Summary Experimental work was conducted in an igloo, half way up Mt. Taisetsu (1050 m), Mt. Tokachi (1030 m) and Mt. Okuteine (820 m) in Hokkaido. One solid nucleus (center nucleus) was observed almost always in the central portion of a snow crystal. From their electron micro-diffraction patterns, the materials of the nuclei were classified into three kinds; a single crystal, polycrystalline or amorphous substances. The patterns of the single crystal gave a hexagonal cross grating, the atomic arrangement in their basal plane had some similarity to that of an ice crystal. Some polycrystalline center nuclei were small sea salt, particles. Their shape was similar to that of the nuclei of sea sprays, and their patterns coincide with that of the sea salt. Some amorphous center nuclei were observed which looked like a liquid droplet under the operating condition of the electron-microscope. It seemed that they are chemical components in the sea salt such as KCl or MgCl particles. In the other parts of snow crystal, many smaller nuclei (condensation nuclei) were observed. These nuclei are also aerosols in the atmosphere; their size was 0.1∼0.01 μ in diameter. They gave the Debye-Scherrer ring; their patterns were different in each specimen. Their materials consist of various substances. From these data, the origin of nuclei and the mode of action of center nucleus were discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 1990-02-01
    Print ISSN: 0169-8095
    Electronic ISSN: 1873-2895
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Published by Elsevier
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 1968-01-01
    Description: The formation of hexagonal and cubic forms of ice was studied by the use of a cold stage in an electron microscope within the temperature range −90° to −180° C. Ice crystal specimens were made on cold substrates, i.e. a collodion film, gold foil, or copper grid on the specimen holder of the cold stage. The hexagonal form of ice formed on the cold substrates at temperatures from−90° to−100° C. At −100° to −130° C, both hexagonal and cubic forms of ice were detected. From −130° to −160° C only cubic ice was found. At temperatures below −160° C, minute crystals of cubic ice were detected. No transformation of the structural form of ice from hexagonal to cubic or from cubic to hexagonal occurred when the temperature of the specimens was varied in the range −90° to −160° C. The lattice constants of hexagonal and cubic ice, and the coefficient of thermal expansion of ice were calculated from the experimental results.
    Print ISSN: 0022-1430
    Electronic ISSN: 1727-5652
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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