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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Escherichia coli cells use two distinct sensory circuits during chemotaxis towards carbohydrates. One circuit requires the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS) and is independent of any specific chemoreceptor, whereas the other uses a chemoreceptor-dependent sensory mechanism analogous to that used during chemotaxis towards amino acids. Work on the carbohydrate chemotaxis sensory circuit of Bacillus subtilis reported in this article indicates that the B. subtilis circuit is different from either of those used by E. coli . Our chemotactic analysis of B. subtilis strains expressing various chimeric chemoreceptors indicates that the cytoplasmic, C-terminal module of the chemoreceptor McpC acts as a sensory-input element during carbohydrate chemotaxis . Our results also indicate that PTS-mediated carbohydrate transport, but not carbohydrate metabolism, is required for production of a chemotactic signal. We propose a model in which PTS-transport-induced chemotactic signals are transmitted to the C-terminal module of McpC for control of chemotaxis towards PTS carbohydrates.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The 20 common amino acids act as attractants during chemotaxis by the Gram-positive organism Bacillus subtilis. In this study, we report that all amino acids induce B. subtilis to produce methanol both upon addition and removal of the chemoeffector. Asparagine-induced methanol production is specific to the McpB receptor and aspartate-induced methanol production correlates with receptor occupancy. These findings suggest that addition and removal of all amino acids cause demethylation of specific receptors which results in methanol production. We also demonstrate that certain attractants cause greater production of methanol after multiple stimulations. CheC and CheD, while affecting the levels of receptor methylation, are not absolutely required for either methylation or demethylation. In contrast, CheY is necessary for methanol formation upon removal of attractant but not upon addition of attractant. We conclude that methanol formation due to negative stimuli indicates the existence of a unique adaptational mechanism in B. subtilis involving the response regulator, CheY.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Chemotaxis by Bacillus subtilis requires the inter-acting chemotaxis proteins CheC and CheD. In this study, we show that CheD is absolutely required for a behavioural response to proline mediated by McpC but is not required for the response to asparagine mediated by McpB. We also show that CheC is not required for the excitation response to asparagine stimulation but is required for adaptation while asparagine remains complexed with the McpB chemoreceptor. CheC displayed an interaction with the histidine kinase CheA as well as with McpB in the yeast two-hybrid assay, suggesting that the mechanism by which CheC affects adaptation may result from an interaction with the receptor–CheA complex. Furthermore, CheC was found to be related to the family of flagellar switch proteins comprising FliM and FliY but is not present in many proteobacterial genomes in which CheD homologues exist. The distinct physiological roles for CheC and CheD during B. subtilis chemotaxis and the observation that CheD is present in bacterial genomes that lack CheC indicate that these proteins can function independently and may define unique pathways during chemotactic signal transduction. We speculate that CheC interacts with flagellar switch components and dissociates upon CheY-P binding and subsequently interacts with the receptor complex to facilitate adaptation.
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