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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-11-17
    Description: High-velocity lower crust (HVLC) and seawarddipping reflector (SDR) sequences are typical features of volcanic rifted margins. However, the nature and origin of HVLC is under discussion. Here we provide a comprehensive analysis of deep crustal structures in the southern segment of the South Atlantic and an assessment of HVLC along the margins. Two new seismic refraction lines off South America fill a gap in the data coverage and together with five existing velocity models allow for a detailed investigation of the lower crustal properties on both margins. An important finding is the major asymmetry in volumes of HVLC on the conjugate margins. The seismic refraction lines across the South African margin reveal cross-sectional areas of HVLC 4 times larger than at the South American margin, a finding that is opposite to the asymmetric distribution of the flood basalts in the Paraná–Etendeka Large Igneous Province. Also, the position of the HVLC with respect to the SDR sequences varies consistently along both margins. Close to the Falkland–Agulhas Fracture Zone in the south, a small body of HVLC is not accompanied by SDRs. In the central portion of both margins, the HVLC is below the inner SDR wedges while in the northern area, closer to the Rio Grande Rise-Walvis Ridge, large volumes of HVLC extend far seaward of the inner SDRs. This challenges the concept of a simple extrusive/intrusive relationship between SDR sequences and HVLC, and it provides evidence for formation of the HVLC at different times during the rifting and breakup process. We suggest that the drastically different HVLC volumes are caused by asymmetric rifting in a simple-shear-dominated extension.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , isiRev
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2021-07-01
    Description: A passive seismic experiment using 25 broadband and 20 short‐period stations was conducted between September 2017 and September 2018 at Los Humeros geothermal field, an important natural laboratory for superhot geothermal systems in Mexico. From the recorded local seismicity, we derive a minimum 1‐D velocity model and obtain 3‐D Vp and Vp/Vs structures of Los Humeros. We improved the classical local earthquake tomography by using a postprocessing statistical approach. Several inversions were computed and averaged to reduce artifacts introduced by the model parametrization and to increase the resolution of the investigated region. Finally, the resulting Vp and Vp/Vs structures and associated seismicity were integrated with newly acquired geophysical and petrophysical data for comprehensive interpretation. The recorded seismicity is mainly grouped in three clusters, two of which seem directly related to exploitation activities. By combining new laboratory measurements and existing well data with our Vp model, we estimate possible geological unit boundaries. One large intrusion‐like body in the Vp model, together with neighboring high Vp/Vs anomalies, hints at a region of active resurgence or uplift due to the intrusion of new magma at the northern portion of the geothermal field. We interpret high Vp/Vs features as fluid bearing regions potentially favorable for further geothermal exploitation. Deep reaching permeable faults cutting the reservoir unit could explain fluid flow from a deeper local heat source in the area.
    Description: Key Points: High‐quality earthquake data were collected to image the Vp and Vp/Vs models for the first time at Los Humeros geothermal field (Mexico). Inversions were performed by extending the classical earthquake tomography using a postprocessing statistical approach. Geological unit boundaries and fluid and gas bearing zones were interpreted considering new geological, geophysical, and petrophysical data.
    Description: Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (CONACYT)
    Description: EC | Horizon 2020 Framework Programme (H2020)
    Keywords: 551.22 ; Los Humeros ; geothermal exploration ; induced and local seismicity ; P and S velocity structure
    Type: article
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2003-01-01
    Description: About 3 km of core material from 14 wells together with additional data from several hundred wells across the NE German Basin (NEGB), have been investigated in order to reconstruct the facies architecture and the evolution of the Upper Rotliegend II. Special attention has also been given to the verification of various controlling factors and their influence on sedimentation in an arid continental environment. The facies architecture within the logged profiles comprises five main environments, namely braided plain, ephemeral stream floodplain, sand flat, mudflat and playa lake. The evolution can be subdivided into four distinct basin-wide correlatable periods -- Parchim, Mirow, Dethlingen and Hannover formations -- with each of them being characterized by a specific basin geometry and interplay of controlling factors. The deposition of the basal Parchim Formation largely took place within a tectonically created basin, whereas the facies evolution displayed an initial less-arid climatic period and later shift to an arid climate. The succeeding Mirow Formation marks the beginning of thermally induced basin subsidence. However, sedimentation itself clearly reflects a period in which the climate was relatively less arid. The overlying Dethlingen Formation was largely controlled by the increasing thermal subsidence of the basin, leading to broad extension towards the south and east. Internally, the strata can show the effects of climatic variability, depending on their position within the basin. The uppermost Hannover Formation was the product of ongoing basin subsidence, a reduction in sediment supply and an increasingly peneplaned topography. In summary, evolution of the Upper Rotliegend II within the NEGB reveals a variety of factors which have a significant influence on sedimentation, such as climate variations, the creation rate and amount of accommodation space, wind direction, sediment budget and source area lithology. An understanding of how these various factors interlink in controlling basin infill is of great significance in understanding the complex depositional history of arid continental successions.
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-11-15
    Description: Author(s): S. Neusser, H. G. Bauer, G. Duerr, R. Huber, S. Mamica, G. Woltersdorf, M. Krawczyk, C. H. Back, and D. Grundler [Phys. Rev. B 84, 184411] Published Mon Nov 14, 2011
    Keywords: Magnetism
    Print ISSN: 1098-0121
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-3795
    Topics: Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2014-05-01
    Description: Various topological constraints at the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) locus impose an extra challenge for transcription and DNA replication, generating constant torsional DNA stress. The topoisomerase Top1 is known to release such torsion by single-strand nicking and re-ligation in a process involving transient covalent Top1 cleavage complexes (Top1cc) with the nicked DNA. Here we show that Top1ccs, despite their usually transient nature, are specifically targeted to and stabilized at the ribosomal replication fork barrier (rRFB) of budding yeast, establishing a link with previously reported Top1 controlled nicks. Using ectopically engineered rRFBs, we establish that the rRFB sequence itself is sufficient for induction of DNA strand-specific and replication-independent Top1ccs. These Top1ccs accumulate only in the presence of Fob1 and Tof2, they are reversible as they are not subject to repair by Tdp1- or Mus81-dependent processes, and their presence correlates with Top1 provided rDNA stability. Notably, the targeted formation of these Top1ccs accounts for the previously reported broken replication forks at the rRFB. These findings implicate a novel and physiologically regulated mode of Top1 action, suggesting a mechanism by which Top1 is recruited to the rRFB and stabilized in a reversible Top1cc configuration to preserve the integrity of the rDNA.
    Print ISSN: 0305-1048
    Electronic ISSN: 1362-4962
    Topics: Biology
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-05-01
    Description: We propose a modified centroid method to compute the depth to the bottom of magnetic sources (DBMS) based on a fractal source distribution. This approach provides better estimates than the assumption of an uncorrelated source distribution. We apply our approach to a recently compiled homogeneous set of aeromagnetic data from Germany. The deepest DBMS values are found for some large basin areas, i.e., the Molasse basin and parts of the North German basin. Smaller DBMS were estimated for the Moldanubian region in southern Germany and the northern part of the North German basin. A comparison of DBMS with heat-flow data, crustal temperatures at 3-km depths, and Moho depth indicates that DBMS is controlled by the geothermal condition of the earth's crust in Germany and lithologic changes. Although the Upper Rhine graben and the Moldanubian region are characterized by small DBMS, a change in DBMS values in northern Germany seems to be related to the Elbe lineament.
    Print ISSN: 0016-8033
    Electronic ISSN: 1942-2156
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2013-03-15
    Description: Subsurface investigations in urban areas have to take sealed surfaces and densely built and populated areas into account. The shear-wave reflection seismic system developed at the Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics (LIAG) provides a solution for this acquisition technology problem using horizontally polarized shear waves (SH-waves) and noninvasive source and receiver designs.
    Print ISSN: 1070-485X
    Electronic ISSN: 1938-3789
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-11-24
    Description: We present quantified visual morphologies of approximately 48 000 galaxies observed in three Hubble Space Telescope legacy fields by the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) and classified by participants in the Galaxy Zoo project. 90 per cent of galaxies have z ≤ 3 and are observed in rest-frame optical wavelengths by CANDELS. Each galaxy received an average of 40 independent classifications, which we combine into detailed morphological information on galaxy features such as clumpiness, bar instabilities, spiral structure, and merger and tidal signatures. We apply a consensus-based classifier weighting method that preserves classifier independence while effectively down-weighting significantly outlying classifications. After analysing the effect of varying image depth on reported classifications, we also provide depth-corrected classifications which both preserve the information in the deepest observations and also enable the use of classifications at comparable depths across the full survey. Comparing the Galaxy Zoo classifications to previous classifications of the same galaxies shows very good agreement; for some applications, the high number of independent classifications provided by Galaxy Zoo provides an advantage in selecting galaxies with a particular morphological profile, while in others the combination of Galaxy Zoo with other classifications is a more promising approach than using any one method alone. We combine the Galaxy Zoo classifications of ‘smooth’ galaxies with parametric morphologies to select a sample of featureless discs at 1 ≤ z ≤ 3, which may represent a dynamically warmer progenitor population to the settled disc galaxies seen at later epochs.
    Print ISSN: 0035-8711
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2966
    Topics: Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-03-06
    Description: Nicolas J Bonne and the Tactile Universe team describe their work to engage the vision-impaired community with accessible astrophysics.
    Print ISSN: 1366-8781
    Electronic ISSN: 1468-4004
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2020-04-20
    Description: Elastic moduli derived from vertical seismic profiles (VSPs) and 2-D SH-wave reflection seismic profiles are used to characterize mechanical properties of rocks in sinkhole areas. VP and VS were used to calculate the Poisson’s ratio and the dynamic shear modulus. The study shows that 2-D shear wave reflection seismics is suited to depict the heterogeneities of the subsurface induced by subsurface erosion. Low shear wave velocities of ca. 120–350 m s–1 and low shear strength values between 25 and 250 MPa are identified for the subsurface erosion horizon that consists of soluble Permian evapourites and the disturbed overlying deposits. These low values are a result of cavities and fractures induced by dissolution, creating unstable zones. In compliance with the shear modulus the Poisson’s ratio derived from the VSPs shows values of 0.38–0.48 for both the presumed subsurface erosion horizon, and the deposits above. This is a further indicator of reduced underground stability. In the VSPs, anomalies of the shear modulus and the Poisson’s ratio correlate with low electrical resistivities of less than 10 Ωm from borehole logs, indicating high conductivity due to fluid content. Further investigation reveals a conversion of S-to-P wave for the subsurface erosion horizon, which is probably the result of dipping layers and an oriented fracture network. Seismic attribute analysis of the 2-D sections shows strong attenuation of high frequencies and low similarity of adjacent traces, which correlate with the degree of subsurface erosion induced wave disturbance of the underground.
    Print ISSN: 0956-540X
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-246X
    Topics: Geosciences
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