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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Sponsors: Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Center for Coastal Studies, New England Aquarium. Location: Carriage House, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole MA 02543. Date: Monday February 7th 2000
    Description: This one day interdisciplinary workshop, attended by 12 veterinarians 11 whale biologists, an engineer and the NMFS Regional Stranding Coordinator, was convened by Michael Moore, with financial support from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Cecil and Ida Green Technology Innovation Fund. The goal was to examine ways in which veterinary medical techniques could assist in efforts to mitigate right whale mortality. In particular the indications and technology for the use of sedation during disentanglement efforts and antibiotic therapy for wounds after disentanglement were considered.
    Description: Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Cecil and Ida Green Technology Innovation Fund
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Working Paper
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-10-24
    Description: © The Author(s), 2017. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Scientific Reports 7 (2017): 13460, doi:10.1038/s41598-017-13359-3.
    Description: Given new distribution patterns of the endangered North Atlantic right whale (NARW; Eubalaena glacialis) population in recent years, an improved understanding of spatio-temporal movements are imperative for the conservation of this species. While so far visual data have provided most information on NARW movements, passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) was used in this study in order to better capture year-round NARW presence. This project used PAM data from 2004 to 2014 collected by 19 organizations throughout the western North Atlantic Ocean. Overall, data from 324 recorders (35,600 days) were processed and analyzed using a classification and detection system. Results highlight almost year-round habitat use of the western North Atlantic Ocean, with a decrease in detections in waters off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina in summer and fall. Data collected post 2010 showed an increased NARW presence in the mid-Atlantic region and a simultaneous decrease in the northern Gulf of Maine. In addition, NARWs were widely distributed across most regions throughout winter months. This study demonstrates that a large-scale analysis of PAM data provides significant value to understanding and tracking shifts in large whale movements over long time scales.
    Description: This research was funded and supported by many organizations, specified by projects as follows: Data recordings from region 1 were provided by K. Stafford and this research effort was funded by the National Science Foundation #NSF-ARC 0532611. Region 2 data were provided by D. K. Mellinger and S. Nieukirk, funded by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Agency (NOAA) and the Office of Naval Research (ONR) #N00014–03–1–0099, NOAA #NA06OAR4600100, US Navy #N00244-08-1-0029, N00244-09-1-0079, and N00244-10-1-0047.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-08-08
    Description: © The Author(s), 2019. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in [citation], doi:[doi]. Record, N. R., Runge, J. A., Pendleton, D. E., Balch, W. M., Davies, K. T. A., Pershing, A. J., Johnson, C. L., Stamieszkin, K., Ji, R., Feng, Z., Kraus, S. D., Kenney, R. D., Hudak, C. A., Mayo, C. A., Chen, C., Salisbury, J. E., & Thompson, C. R. S. Rapid climate-driven circulation changes threaten conservation of endangered North Atlantic right whales. Oceanography, 32(2), (2019): 162-169, doi: 10.5670/oceanog.2019.201.
    Description: As climate trends accelerate, ecosystems will be pushed rapidly into new states, reducing the potential efficacy of conservation strategies based on historical patterns. In the Gulf of Maine, climate-driven changes have restructured the ecosystem rapidly over the past decade. Changes in the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation have altered deepwater dynamics, driving warming rates twice as high as the fastest surface rates. This has had implications for the copepod Calanus finmarchicus, a critical food supply for the endangered North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis). The oceanographic changes have driven a deviation in the seasonal foraging patterns of E. glacialis upon which conservation strategies depend, making the whales more vulnerable to ship strikes and gear entanglements. The effects of rapid climate-driven changes on a species at risk undermine current management approaches.
    Description: NASA NNX14AM77G and NNX17AI77G (NRR, WMB), NASA NNX16AG59G (NRR, KS), NSF OCE 1459096, 1459087 (NRR, JAR, CRST, CC), NSF OCE 1459133 (RJ, ZF), OCE-1655686 (RJ, ZF), USGS G16AC00237 (DEP), Maine Department of Marine Resources (JR, CRST), Marine Environmental Observation Prediction and Response Network of Centres of Excellence (KTAD). NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service; Massachusetts Environmental Trust; Division of Marine Fisheries, Commonwealth of Massachusetts (CH, CAM), Northeastern Regional Association of Coastal Ocean Observing Systems (CC).
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-11-20
    Description: © The Author(s), 2019. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Baumgartner, M. F., Bonnell, J., Van Parijs, S. M., Corkeron, P. J., Hotchkin, C., Ball, K., Pelletier, L., Partan, J., Peters, D., Kemp, J., Pietro, J., Newhall, K., Stokes, A., Cole, T. V. N., Quintana, E., & Kraus, S. D. Persistent near real-time passive acoustic monitoring for baleen whales from a moored buoy: System description and evaluation. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 10(9), (2019): 1476-1489, doi: 10.1111/2041-210X.13244.
    Description: 1. Managing interactions between human activities and marine mammals often relies on an understanding of the real‐time distribution or occurrence of animals. Visual surveys typically cannot provide persistent monitoring because of expense and weather limitations, and while passive acoustic recorders can monitor continuously, the data they collect are often not accessible until the recorder is recovered. 2. We have developed a moored passive acoustic monitoring system that provides near real‐time occurrence estimates for humpback, sei, fin and North Atlantic right whales from a single site for a year, and makes those occurrence estimates available via a publicly accessible website, email and text messages, a smartphone/tablet app and the U.S. Coast Guard's maritime domain awareness software. We evaluated this system using a buoy deployed off the coast of Massachusetts during 2015–2016 and redeployed again during 2016–2017. Near real‐time estimates of whale occurrence were compared to simultaneously collected archived audio as well as whale sightings collected near the buoy by aerial surveys. 3. False detection rates for right, humpback and sei whales were 0% and nearly 0% for fin whales, whereas missed detection rates at daily time scales were modest (12%–42%). Missed detections were significantly associated with low calling rates for all species. We observed strong associations between right whale visual sightings and near real‐time acoustic detections over a monitoring range 30–40 km and temporal scales of 24–48 hr, suggesting that silent animals were not especially problematic for estimating occurrence of right whales in the study area. There was no association between acoustic detections and visual sightings of humpback whales. 4. The moored buoy has been used to reduce the risk of ship strikes for right whales in a U.S. Coast Guard gunnery range, and can be applied to other mitigation applications.
    Description: We thank Annamaria Izzi, Danielle Cholewiak and Genevieve Davis of the NOAA NEFSC for assistance in developing the analyst protocol. We are grateful to the NOAA NEFSC aerial survey observers (Leah Crowe, Pete Duley, Jen Gatzke, Allison Henry, Christin Khan and Karen Vale) and the NEAq aerial survey observers (Angela Bostwick, Marianna Hagbloom and Paul Nagelkirk). Danielle Cholewiak and three anonymous reviewers provided constructive criticism on earlier drafts of the manuscript. Funding for this project was provided by the NOAA NEFSC, NOAA Advanced Sampling Technology Work Group, Environmental Security Technology Certification Program of the U.S. Department of Defense, the U.S. Navy's Living Marine Resources Program, Massachusetts Clean Energy Center and the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management. Funding from NOAA was facilitated by the Cooperative Institute for the North Atlantic Region (CINAR) under Cooperative Agreement NA14OAR4320158.
    Keywords: acoustics ; autonomous ; buoy ; conservation ; mitigation ; real‐time ; ship strikes ; whale
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-01-07
    Description: Author Posting. © The Authors, 2009. This article is posted here by permission of NRC Research Press for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 66 (2009): 1399-1403, doi:10.1139/F09-115.
    Description: Despite many years of study and protection, the North Atlantic right whale (Eubalaena glacialis) remains on the brink of extinction. There is a crucial gap in our understanding of their habitat use in the migratory corridor along the eastern seaboard of the United States. Here, we characterize habitat suitability in migrating right whales in relation to depth, distance to shore, and the recently enacted ship speed regulations near major ports. We find that the range of suitable habitat exceeds previous estimates and that, as compared with the enacted 20 nautical mile buffer, the originally proposed 30 nautical mile buffer would protect more habitat for this critically endangered species.
    Description: This work was supported in part by SERDP/DoD grant W912HQ-04-C-0011 to A.J. Read and P.N. Halpin as well as a James B. Duke Fellowship and a Harvey L. Smith Dissertation Year Fellowship to R.S. Schick.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-09-23
    Description: © The Author(s), 2013. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Conservation Physiology 1 (2013): cot006, doi:10.1093/conphys/cot006.
    Description: Large whales are subjected to a variety of conservation pressures that could be better monitored and managed if physiological information could be gathered readily from free-swimming whales. However, traditional approaches to studying physiology have been impractical for large whales, because there is no routine method for capture of the largest species and there is presently no practical method of obtaining blood samples from free-swimming whales. We review the currently available techniques for gathering physiological information on large whales using a variety of non-lethal and minimally invasive (or non-invasive) sample matrices. We focus on methods that should produce information relevant to conservation physiology, e.g. measures relevant to stress physiology, reproductive status, nutritional status, immune response, health, and disease. The following four types of samples are discussed: faecal samples, respiratory samples (‘blow’), skin/blubber samples, and photographs. Faecal samples have historically been used for diet analysis but increasingly are also used for hormonal analyses, as well as for assessment of exposure to toxins, pollutants, and parasites. Blow samples contain many hormones as well as respiratory microbes, a diverse array of metabolites, and a variety of immune-related substances. Biopsy dart samples are widely used for genetic, contaminant, and fatty-acid analyses and are now being used for endocrine studies along with proteomic and transcriptomic approaches. Photographic analyses have benefited from recently developed quantitative techniques allowing assessment of skin condition, ectoparasite load, and nutritional status, along with wounds and scars from ship strikes and fishing gear entanglement. Field application of these techniques has the potential to improve our understanding of the physiology of large whales greatly, better enabling assessment of the relative impacts of many anthropogenic and ecological pressures.
    Description: This work was supported by the United States Office of Naval Research (award #N000141110435 to K.E.H., award #N000141110540 to R.M.R., and award #N0001412WX20890 to L.C.Y. and C.E.D.); the United Kingdom Natural Environmental Research Council (supporting A.J.H.); the National Center for Research Resources, a component of the United States National Institutes of Health (NIH; supporting C.E.D.); the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research (UL1 RR024146 supporting C.E.D.); The Hartwell Foundation (supporting C.E.D.) and the 2012 Marine Mammal Breath Workshop, which was funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Marine Mammal Health and Stranding Response Program.
    Keywords: Blow ; Biopsy dart ; Cetacea ; Faecal samples ; Non-invasive ; Visual health assessment
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-03-03
    Description: © The Author(s), 2016. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Frontiers in Marine Science 3 (2016): 137, doi:10.3389/fmars.2016.00137.
    Keywords: Right whales ; Conservation ; Mortalities ; Entanglements ; Population recovery
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-12-10
    Description: Presented at 2019: World Marine Mammal Science Conference, Barcelona, Spain, December 9-12, 2019.
    Description: Detection rate of severely injured or entangled NARWs began to increase around 2004 - 2007.
    Description: We thank the North Atlantic Right Whale Consortium for data curation and dissemination, and the Atlantic Large Whale Disentanglement Network for entanglement sighting information.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Presentation
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The most serious danger to dolphins and porpoises around the world is the threat from various forms of gill-net fishing. One potential way to reduce the number of deaths of marine mammals is the use of active acoustic alarms to warn animals about the presence of nets. Until now, acoustic ...
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0703
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), total DDT (DDT+DDE+DDD), dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide, chlordanes, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were found in blubber biopsies from endangered North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) in the Bay of Fundy and on Browns-Baccaro Banks. Analyses included four sex and age class composite samples from 1988, and 21 individual samples from 1989. Generally, PCBs demonstrated the highest wet weight residue levels (up to 1.9 μg/g), followed by total DDT (DDT+DDE+DDD) (trace to 0.47 μg/g). Relatively low residue levels in adult females suggest that transmammary organochlorine (OC) residue transfer occurs during lactation. The actual blubber residue loads may have been under-estimated, because the samples were taken when the whales were depositing fat reserves and the samples may not have been representative of the remainder of the blubber.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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