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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2012-07-06
    Description: The accurate reconstruction of sea surface temperature (SST) history in climate-sensitive regions (e.g. tropical and polar oceans) became a challenging task in palaeoceanographic research. Biogenic shell carbonate SST proxies successfully developed for tropical regions often fail in cool water environments. Their major regional shortcomings and the cryptic diversity now found within the major high latitude proxy carrier Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sin.) highlight an urgent need to explore complementary SST proxies for these cool-water regions. Here we incorporate the genetic component into a calibration study of a new SST proxy for the high latitudes. We found that the calcium isotopic composition (δ44/40Ca) of calcite from genotyped net catches and core-top samples of the planktonic foraminifera Neogloboquadrina pachyderma (sin.) is related to temperature and unaffected by genetic variations. The temperature sensitivity has been found to be 0.17 (±0.02)‰ per 1°C, highlighting its potential for downcore applications in open marine cool-water environments. Our results further indicate that in extreme polar environments, below a critical threshold temperature of 2.0 (±0.5)°C associated with salinities below 33.0 (±0.5)‰, a prominent shift in biomineralization affects the δ44/40Ca of genotyped and core-top N. pachyderma (sin.), becoming insensitive to temperature. These findings highlight the need of more systematic calibration studies on single planktonic foraminiferal species in order to unravel species-specific factors influencing the temperature sensitivity of Ca isotope fractionation and to validate the proxies' applicability.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-02-16
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 40 data points
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  • 3
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Griffith, Elizabeth M; Paytan, Adina; Kozdon, Reinhard; Eisenhauer, Anton; Ravelo, Ana Christina (2008): Influences on the fractionation of calcium isotopes in planktonic foraminifera. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 268(1-2), 124-136, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2008.01.006
    Publication Date: 2019-02-13
    Description: For paleoceanographic studies, it is important to understand the processes that influence the calcium (Ca) isotopic composition of foraminiferal calcite tests preserved in the sediment record. Seven species of planktonic foraminifera from coretop sediments collectively exhibited a Ca temperature dependent fractionation of 0.013 per mil per °C. This is in agreement with previously published estimates for most species of planktonic foraminifera as well as biogenic and inorganic calcite and aragonite. Four species of planktonic foraminifera collected from a sediment trap showed a considerable amount of scatter and no consistent temperature dependent fractionation. Analyzed size fractions of coretop samples show no significant relationship with d44/40Ca. However, preliminary results suggest that the symbiotic and spinose foraminifera G. sacculifer might exhibit a relationship between test size and d44/40Ca. A one-box model in which Ca isotopes are allowed to fractionate by Rayleigh distillation from a biomineralization reservoir (internal pool) was used to constrain the isotopic composition of the original biomineralization Ca reservoir, assuming around 85% of the Ca reservoir is precipitated and the fractionation factor during precipitation is 0.9985 + 0.00002(T ºC). To explain the foraminiferal Ca isotope data, this model indicates that the Ca isotopic composition of the biomineralization reservoir is offset from seawater (approximately -0.8per mil).
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 3 datasets
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  • 4
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    In:  (Doctoral thesis/PhD), Christian-Albrechts-Universität, Kiel, 71 pp
    Publication Date: 2012-07-06
    Description: A new approach for a solid delta44/40Ca temperature calibration of the polar to subpolar planktonic foraminifera N. pachyderma (sin.) is presented, based on a broad sample pool comprising North and South Atlantic genotyped net catches and Nordic Seas core top sample material. With this new additional SST proxy, the 'cold end' error of proxy temperature calibrations was addressed in combining delta44/40Ca, Mg/Ca and delta18O ratios in tests of N. pachyderma (sin.). At water temperatures below about 3.5°C, the proxy to temperature relationship recorded in the Mg/Ca and delta44/40Ca signal simultaneously disappears. Based on these 'cold-end' proxy-data we present a model demonstrating that the aberrant delta44/40Ca and Mg/Ca ratios in N. pachyderma (sin.) calcified in cold polar waters can be interpreted by a two-step chemical modification of vacuolized seawater during its cytosolar transport to the calcification site.
    Type: Thesis , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-06-16
    Description: The modern North Pacific plays a critical role in marine biogeochemical cycles, as an oceanic sink of CO2 and by bearing some of the most productive and least oxygenated waters of the World Ocean. The capacity to sequester CO2 is limited by efficient nutrient supply to the mixed layer, particularly from deeper water masses in the Pacific's subarctic and marginal seas. The region is in addition only weakly ventilated by North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW), which receives its characteristics from Okhotsk Sea Intermediate Water (OSIW). Here, we present reconstructions of intermediate water ventilation and productivity variations in the Okhotsk Sea that cover the last glacial termination between eight and 18 ka, based on a set of high-resolution sediment cores from sites directly downstream of OSIW formation. In a multi-proxy approach, we use total organic carbon (TOC), chlorin, biogenic opal, and CaCO3 concentrations as indicators for biological productivity. C/N ratios and XRF scanning-derived elemental ratios (Si/K and Fe/K), as well as chlorophycean algae counts document changes in Amur freshwater and sediment discharge that condition the OSIW. Stable carbon isotopes of epi- and shallow endobenthic foraminifera, in combination with 14C analyses of benthic and planktic foraminifera imply decreases in OSIW oxygenation during deglacial warm phases from c. 14.7 to 13 ka (Bølling-Allerød) and c. 11.4 to 9 ka (Preboreal). No concomitant decreases in Okhotsk Sea benthic-planktic ventilation ages are observed, in contrast to nearby, but southerly locations on the Japan continental margin. We attribute Okhotsk Sea mid-depth oxygenation decreases in times of enhanced organic matter supply to maxima in remineralization within OSIW, in line with multi-proxy evidence for maxima in primary productivity and supply of organic matter. Sedimentary C/N and Fe/K ratios indicate more effective entrainment of nutrients into OSIW and thus an increased nutrient load of OSIW during deglacial warm periods. Correlation of palynological and sedimentological evidence from our sites with hinterland reference records suggests that millennial-scale changes in OSIW oxygen and nutrient concentrations were largely influenced by fluvial freshwater runoff maxima from the Amur, caused by a deglacial northeastward propagation of the East Asian Summer Monsoon that increased precipitation and temperatures, in conjunction with melting of permafrost in the Amur catchment area. We suggest that OSIW ventilation minima and the high lateral supply of nutrients and organic matter during the Allerød and Preboreal are mechanistically linked to concurrent maxima in nutrient utilization and biological productivity in the subpolar Northwest Pacific. In this scenario, increased export of nutrients from the Okhotsk Sea during deglacial warm phases supported subarctic Pacific shifts from generally Fe-limiting conditions to transient nutrient-replete regimes through enhanced advection of mid-depth nutrient- and Fe-rich OSIW into the upper ocean. This mechanism may have moderated the role of the subarctic Pacific in the deglacial CO2 rise on millennial timescales by combining the upwelling of old carbon-rich waters with a transient delivery of mid-depth-derived bio-available Fe and silicate.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: The early Eocene (56 to 48 million years ago) is inferred to have been the most recent time that Earth's atmospheric CO2 concentrations exceeded 1000 ppm. Global mean temperatures were also substantially warmer than present day. As such, study of early Eocene climate provides insight into how a super-warm Earth system behaves and offers an opportunity to 10 evaluate climate models under conditions of high greenhouse gas forcing. The Deep Time Model Intercomparison Project (DeepMIP) is a systematic model-model and model-data intercomparison of three early Paleogene time slices: latest Paleocene, Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum and early Eocene climatic optimum. A previous article outlined the model experimental design for climate model simulations. In this article, we outline the methodologies to be used for the compilation and analysis of climate proxy data, primarily proxies for temperature and CO2. This paper establishes the protocols for a concerted and 15 coordinated effort to compile the climate proxy records across a wide geographic range. The resulting climate "atlas" will be used to constrain and evaluate climate models for the three selected time intervals, and provide insights into the mechanisms that control these warm climate states. We provide version 0.1 of this database, in anticipation that this will be expanded in subsequent publications.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: archive
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  • 7
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Kozdon, Reinhard; Kelly, Daniel Clay; Kitajima, K; Strickland, A; Fournelle, John H; Valley, John W (2013): In situ d18O and Mg/Ca analyses of diagenetic and planktic foraminiferal calcite preserved in a deep-sea record of the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum|. Paleoceanography, 28(3), 517-528, https://doi.org/10.1002/palo.20048
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: We report d18O and minor element (Mg/Ca, Sr/Ca) data acquired by high-resolution, in situ secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) from planktic foraminiferal shells and 100-500 µm sized diagenetic crystallites recovered from a deep-sea record (ODP Site 865) of the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM). The d18O of crystallites (~1.2 per mil Pee Dee Belemnite (PDB)) is ~4.8 per mil higher than that of planktic foraminiferal calcite (-3.6 per mil PDB), while crystallite Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios are slightly higher and substantially lower than in planktic foraminiferal calcite, respectively. The focused stratigraphic distribution of the crystallites signals an association with PETM conditions; hence, we attribute their formation to early diagenesis initially sourced by seafloor dissolution (burndown) ensued by reprecipitation at higher carbonate saturation. The Mg/Ca ratios of the crystallites are an order of magnitude lower than those predicted by inorganic precipitation experiments, which may reflect a degree of inheritance from "donor" phases of biogenic calcite that underwent solution in the sediment column. In addition, SIMS d18O and electron microprobe Mg/Ca analyses that were taken within a planktic foraminiferal shell yield parallel increases along traverses that coincide with muricae blades on the chamber wall. The parallel d18O and Mg/Ca increases indicate a diagenetic origin for the blades, but their d18O value (-0.5 per mil PDB) is lower than that of crystallites suggesting that these two phases of diagenetic carbonate formed at different times. Finally, we posit that elevated levels of early diagenesis acted in concert with sediment mixing and carbonate dissolution to attenuate the d18O decrease signaling PETM warming in "whole-shell" records published for Site 865.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 5 datasets
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 715 data points
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 240 data points
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 416 data points
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