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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 432 (2004), S. 684-685 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Every few years, the semi-arid but densely populated region of northeastern Brazil experiences severe drought. In 1997–98, exacerbated by poor distribution of resources, such an event caused great hardship. And in the catastrophic drought of 1877–79, hundreds of thousands of people ...
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] In the present-day climate, surface water salinities are low in the western tropical Pacific Ocean and increase towards the eastern part of the basin. The salinity of surface waters in the tropical Pacific Ocean is thought to be controlled by a combination of atmospheric convection, ...
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-10-16
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/article
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2015-12-05
    Description: Tropical Pacific Ocean dynamics during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and the Little Ice Age (LIA) are poorly characterized due to a lack of evidence from the eastern equatorial Pacific. We reconstructed sea surface temperature, El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) activity, and the tropical Pacific zonal gradient for the past millennium from Galapagos ocean sediments. We document a mid-millennium shift (MMS) in ocean-atmosphere circulation around 1500-1650 CE, from a state with dampened ENSO and strong zonal gradient to one with amplified ENSO and weak gradient. The MMS coincided with the deepest LIA cooling and was probably caused by a southward shift of the intertropical convergence zone. The peak of the MCA (900-1150 CE) was a warm period in the eastern Pacific, contradicting the paradigm of a persistent La Nina pattern.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Rustic, Gerald T -- Koutavas, Athanasios -- Marchitto, Thomas M -- Linsley, Braddock K -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Dec 18;350(6267):1537-41. doi: 10.1126/science.aac9937. Epub 2015 Dec 3.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Engineering Science and Physics, College of Staten Island, City University of New York, Staten Island, NY 10314, USA. Doctoral Program in Earth and Environmental Sciences, Graduate Center of the City University of New York, New York, NY 10016, USA. grustic@ldeo.columbia.edu. ; Department of Engineering Science and Physics, College of Staten Island, City University of New York, Staten Island, NY 10314, USA. Doctoral Program in Earth and Environmental Sciences, Graduate Center of the City University of New York, New York, NY 10016, USA. Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, 61 Route 9W, Palisades, NY 10964, USA. ; Department of Geological Sciences and Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309, USA. ; Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, 61 Route 9W, Palisades, NY 10964, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26634438" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2002-07-13
    Description: Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the cold tongue of the eastern equatorial Pacific exert powerful controls on global atmospheric circulation patterns. We examined climate variability in this region from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to the present, using a SST record reconstructed from magnesium/calcium ratios in foraminifera from sea-floor sediments near the Galapagos Islands. Cold-tongue SST varied coherently with precession-induced changes in seasonality during the past 30,000 years. Observed LGM cooling of just 1.2 degrees C implies a relaxation of tropical temperature gradients, weakened Hadley and Walker circulation, southward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, and a persistent El Nino-like pattern in the tropical Pacific. This is contrasted with mid-Holocene cooling suggestive of a La Nina-like pattern with enhanced SST gradients and strengthened trade winds. Our results support a potent role for altered tropical Pacific SST gradients in global climate variations.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Koutavas, Athanasios -- Lynch-Stieglitz, Jean -- Marchitto, Thomas M Jr -- Sachs, Julian P -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2002 Jul 12;297(5579):226-30.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Columbia University, Palisades, NY 10964, USA. athan@ldeo.columbia.edu〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12114619" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019
    Description: Abstract El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the largest source of interannual climate variability on Earth today; however, future ENSO remains difficult to predict. Evaluation of paleo‐ENSO may help improve our basic understanding of the phenomenon and help resolve discrepancies among models tasked with simulating future climate. Individual foraminifera analysis (IFA) allows continuous down‐core records of ENSO‐related temperature variability through the construction and comparison of paleotemperature distributions; however, there has been little focus on calibrating this technique to modern conditions. Here, we present data from individual measurements of Mg/Ca in two species of planktic foraminifera, surface dwelling Globigerinoides ruber and thermocline dwelling Neogloboquadrina dutertrei, from nine core‐tops across the equatorial Pacific (n ≈ 70 per core for each species). Population variance, kernel probability density functions, and quantile‐quantile analyses are used to evaluate the shape of each Mg/Ca‐temperature distribution and to compare them to modern conditions using monthly temperatures from the Simple Ocean Data Assimilation. We show that populations of individual Mg/Ca measurements in both G. ruber and N. dutertrei reflect site‐specific temperature distribution shapes and variances across the equatorial Pacific when accounting for regional differences in depth habitats. Individual measurements of both taxa capture zonal increases in population variance from the western equatorial Pacific to the central equatorial Pacific, and a spatially heterogeneous eastern equatorial Pacific, consistent with modern conditions. Lastly, we show that populations of individual Mg/Ca measurements are able to recover meaningful differences in temperature variability between sites within the eastern equatorial Pacific, lending support to this tool's application for paleo‐ENSO reconstructions.
    Print ISSN: 0883-8305
    Electronic ISSN: 2572-4525
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-11-22
    Description: Warmer and drier climatic conditions are projected for the 21st century; however, the role played by extreme climatic events on forest vulnerability is still little understood. For example, more severe droughts and heat waves could threaten quaternary relict tree refugia such as Circum-Mediterranean fir forests (CMFF). Using tree-ring data and...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2012-12-15
    Description: The El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the largest engine of interannual climate variability on the planet, yet its past behavior and potential for future change are poorly understood and vigorously contested. Reconstructions of past ENSO are indispensable for testing climate models tasked with predicting future ENSO activity in a warming world, but suitable geologic archives are scarce, especially for the last glacial period. Here we reconstruct mean climate and ENSO variability in the Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) from oxygen isotopic ratios (δ18O) of individual foraminifera retrieved from deep-sea sediments. Our results document coordinated adjustments of the tropical Pacific/ENSO system between two diametrically opposite states: an “amplified ENSO” state in the LGM associated with a reduced zonal temperature gradient, and a “damped ENSO” state in the Mid-Holocene with enhanced gradient. Orbital precession provided the switch between these states and acted as the dominant external driver of the tropical Pacific/ENSO system in the past 25,000 years. The linked response of the mean state and variability to orbital forcing provides an integrated framework for testing ENSO theory and models.
    Print ISSN: 0883-8305
    Electronic ISSN: 1944-9186
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2012-10-10
    Description: Growth-climate relationships were investigated in Greek firs from Ainos Mountain on the island of Cephalonia in western Greece, using dendrochronology. The goal was to test whether tree growth is sensitive to moisture stress, whether such sensitivity has been stable through time, and whether any changes in growth-moisture relationships support an influence of atmospheric CO 2 on growth. Regressions of tree-ring indices (AD 1820–2007) with instrumental temperature, precipitation and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) indicate that growth is fundamentally limited by growing-season moisture in late spring/early summer, most critically during June. However this simple picture obscures a pattern of sharply evolving growth-climate relationships during the 20 th century. Correlations between growth and June temperature, precipitation, and PDSI were significantly greater in the early 20 th century but later degraded and disappeared. By the late 20 th –early 21 st century there remains no statistically significant relationship between moisture and growth implying markedly enhanced resistance to drought. Moreover growth experienced a net increase over the last half-century culminating with a sharp spike in AD 1988–1990. This recent growth acceleration is evident in the raw ring-width data prior to standardization, ruling out artifacts from statistical detrending. The vanishing relationship with moisture and parallel enhancement of growth are all the more notable because they occurred against a climatic backdrop of increasing aridity. The results are most consistent with a significant CO 2 fertilization effect operating through restricted stomatal conductance and improved water use efficiency. If this interpretation is correct, atmospheric CO 2 is now overcompensating for growth declines anticipated from drier climate, suggesting its effect is unusually strong and likely to be detectable in other up-to-date tree-ring chronologies from the Mediterranean. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Print ISSN: 1354-1013
    Electronic ISSN: 1365-2486
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geography
    Published by Wiley
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2013-01-03
    Description: [1]  The El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the largest engine of interannual climate variability on the planet, yet its past behavior and potential for future change are poorly understood and vigorously contested. Reconstructions of past ENSO are indispensable for testing climate models tasked with predicting future ENSO activity in a warming world, but suitable geologic archives are scarce, especially for the last glacial period. Here we reconstruct mean climate and ENSO variability in the Holocene and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) from oxygen isotopic ratios ( δ 18 O) of individual foraminifera retrieved from deep-sea sediments. Our results document coordinated adjustments of the tropical Pacific/ENSO system between two diametrically opposite states: an “amplified ENSO” state in the LGM associated with a reduced zonal temperature gradient, and a “damped ENSO” state in the Mid-Holocene with enhanced gradient. Orbital precession provided the switch between these states and acted as the dominant external driver of the tropical Pacific/ENSO system in the past 25,000 years. The linked response of the mean state and variability to orbital forcing provides an integrated framework for testing ENSO theory and models.
    Print ISSN: 0883-8305
    Electronic ISSN: 1944-9186
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Geophysical Union (AGU).
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