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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-06-21
    Description: In recent years, we have been witnessing a growing number of researchers whose objective is to gain a better understanding of the variation in the rate of spatial innovation of different industrial plants. Only a very small number of studies, however, have investigated the similarity and dissimilarity of spatial innovation between countries. This study attempts to fill this gap. It reports the results of a larger study carried out jointly by a team of researchers from Germany and Israel. In Germany, the study focused on the State of Baden Wurttemberg, and in Israel on the Northern District. Altogether in both countries, more than 400 industrial plants, belonging to the fastest-growing industrial branches (Electronics, Metals and Plastics) were included in the study. The use of simple statistical models, augmented by multi-variable Logit Models, enabled us to point out the similarity and dissimilarity in spatial innovation patterns between the two countries. The results further support the hypothesis that expenditure on R&D is a good surrogate for the probability of the firm to innovate, regardless of the industrial branch to which the plant belongs. In general, we can conclude that there exists a strong similarity in the frequency of industrial innovation in both countries; i.e., the rate of innovation in their hi-tech industries is significantly higher than in their traditional industries. On the other hand, the pattern of spatial variations in the rate of innovation in Israel is much more pronounced and visible compared to Germany.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-12-19
    Description: A key feature of the knowledge-based economy is a remarkable increase in the number, foundation rates, and employees of knowledge-intensive business service firms (KIBS). KIBS are knowledge-intensive, in the sense that they are founded upon highly specialised knowledge. Based on the assumption that knowledge and knowledge organisation are tied to personal capabilities and information, spatial proximity to knowledge-providers and -users appears to be crucial in the development and growth process of KIBS. The idea that the region affects foundation activities primarily derives from a resource-based view. Different regional environments (e.g. configurations of incubator and intermediate organisations, regional entrepreneurial social infrastructure) and the foundation pattern of KIBS are obviously interrelated. In addition to environmental factors affecting the development or growth of newly founded KIBS, factors related to the entrepreneur of KIBS and to characteristics of the KIBS firms have to be taken into consideration. Based upon a survey with founders of KIBS firms in three German regions, a selection of indicators will be used as determinants for new KIBS growth. Comparing the successful KIBS start-ups with those showing an employment decrease in the relevant time period, it has to be emphasized that KIBS with employment increase co-operate with other firms and institutions on all spatial levels, regardless of the function of the partner firms for the KIBS activities.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; KIBS ; Region ; Spatial proximity ; Growth ; Unternehmensgründung ; Unternehmensdienstleistung ; Wissen ; Regionale Konzentration ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-12-19
    Description: Focussing on the firms' internal innovation capabilities and the external co-operative links, it is the aim of the paper to describe the structural composition of Slovenian manufacturing firms with respect to their innovative activities, to analyse their innovative performance using input and output indicators, and to assess their networking intensity with the different actors in the innovation system. Altogether, not only quantitative factors related to innovation will be identified, but also the potential of innovations in industry will be evaluated. This leads to including "soft" or contextual factors as preconditions for realising such potentials. For this reason, an innovation survey has been carried out in Slovenia during October 1997 and early 1998, addressing manufacturing firms, business-related service firms and research institutes. The methodology and the questionnaires of the survey have been applied also to other European regions such as Baden, southeast Lower Saxony and Saxony (Germany), Alsace and Gironde (France), Stockholm (Sweden), Wales (UK), South Holland (Netherlands), Vienna (Austria), and Barcelona (Spain) (see for example Backhaus/Seidel 1997; Fritsch et al. 1996; Koschatzky/Traxel1997, Muller 1997). Taking into account these previous experiences in other regions and the knowledge of the Slovene situation, the design of the research has been carefully adapted to the transition context by a joint German-Slovene team. This paper concentrates on reporting results derived from the Slovenian manufacturing industry innovation survey. For comparative reasons, some references are made either to the Baden sampie or to the results derived for Saxony, a region in transition within the process of German unification.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Industrielle Forschung ; Innovation ; Verarbeitendes Gewerbe ; Slowenien
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-07-22
    Description: Innovationen in der Landwirtschaft sollen dazu beitragen, künftige Herausforderungen wie den Klimawandel oder Ressourcenknappheit zu bewältigen. Zudem stehen sie im Zentrum gesellschaftlicher Debatten, wie etwa aktuell über die Gentechnik oder über bestimmte Tierhaltungsformen. Der Beitrag liefert unter anderem Hinweise, inwieweit Ursachen für diese Konflikte in den Rahmenbedingungen und im Ablauf von Innovationsprozessen in der Landwirtschaft begründet sind. Dazu wird das Innovationssystem der deutschen Landwirtschaft aus einer innovationssystemtheoretischen Perspektive heraus beleuchtet und mit empirischen Befunden zu Innovationshemmnissen belegt. Die in drei Fallstudien untersuchten Innovationen sollen jeweils einen Beitrag zur Bewältigung aktueller Herausforderungen leisten und sind in ihrem Entstehungsprozess durch mehrere Faktoren beeinflusst: verschiedene Technologien, vielfältige Akteure, Verbindungen in andere Branchen, sich überschneidende Rahmenbedingungen und aktuelle Herausforderungen sowie gesellschaftliche Diskurse. Dabei ermöglichen der verwendete Innovationssystemansatz und die empirische Untersuchung auf mehreren Ebenen, Einsicht in die Wechselwirkungen zu erlangen und somit Ansatzpunkte für Veränderungen zu erkennen. Die hohen Anforderungen an Innovationen in der Landwirtschaft und die gesellschaftlichen Akzeptanzdebatten lassen sich aus Sicht der Autoren anhand folgender Aspekte erklären und lösen: (1) Voraussetzung für Innovation ist das Vorhandensein einer Vertrauensbasis. Diese entsteht in der Landwirtschaft - und nicht nur dort - vorrangig in kleineren, längerfristigen Netzwerken. (2) Der Erfolg von Innovationen hängt stark davon ab, dass gesellschaftliche Anforderungen in die Innovationsprozesse inte- griert werden, zum Beispiel durch die frühzeitige Einbeziehung von Handel und Verbrauchern. Die Ergebnisse werfen über diese Balance von Kontinuität und Offenheit von landwirtschaftlichen Innovationsnetzwerken hinaus Fragen nach dem (Selbst-)Verständnis und der Gestaltung des Innovationssystems, der Anreize und Gestaltung interdisziplinärer Zusammenarbeit sowie dem Rollenverständnis der Akteure auf.
    Description: Agricultural innovations are meant to master global challenges such as climate change. However, they are often subject to highly controversial societal debates, such as in the case of genetic engineering or certain forms of animal production. This paper provides insight in the extent to which these conflicts are rooted in the conditions and processes of agricultural innovation. We analyze the German agricultural innovation system from an adapted systems perspective and present three case studies. These case studies potentially contribute to solving current challenges and are influenced in their development process by different factors: different technologies, actors, links to other branches, overlapping frame conditions and current challenges as well as societal debates. The innovation system concept applied to different system levels provides insight into interrelationships and hence allows us to identify starting points for improvement. The explanation and potential solution in mastering the high expectations on agricultural innovation and societal debates the authors point to two aspects: 1) As it is in many other areas trust is an important basis for innovative collaboration in small networks. (2) At the same time innovation success depends on the incorporation of societal trends in innovation processes, e. g. via a greater involvement of consumers and retailers at an early stage. Overall, besides the balancing of continuity and openness of agricultural innovation networks, our results raise questions for the (self-)concept and design of the agricultural innovation system, for incentives and shaping of interdisciplinary collaboration as well as for the (self-)role model of the involved actors.
    Keywords: P48 ; Q16 ; ddc:330 ; Agricultural innovation policy ; innovation mechanism ; precision farming ; animal monitoring ; energy in horticulture
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-04-11
    Description: In den letzten Jahren wurden Regionen, verstanden als räumliche Einheiten unterschiedlicher Größen innerhalb eines Landes, durch das Aufgreifen regionaler Entwicklungskonzepte, die Thematisierung von Innovationsnetzwerken sowie durch die Popularisierung des Cluster-Ansatzes zunehmend interessant für die deutsche und europäische Innovations- und Technologiepolitik. Beispiele sind der BioRegio Wettbewerb, der InnoRegio Wettbewerb und die Fördermaßnahme EXIST zur Stimulierung von Existenzgründungen aus Hochschulen. Allerdings liegen bislang nur unzureichende Erkenntnisse über die statistische Erfassung und Messung regionaler Innovations- und Technologiepotentiale sowie über die Bestimmungsgründe der räumlichen Verteilung von Innovationsaktivitäten in Deutschland und Europa vor. Das im Auftrag des BMBF durchgeführte Projekt hatte zur Aufgabe, einen für regionale Betrachtungen geeigneten Katalog von Innovations- und Technologieindikatoren zu entwickeln, diesen für die Analyse der Regionalstruktur in Deutschland und Europa anzuwenden sowie die Bestimmungsgründe regionaler Innovationsunterschiede zu ermitteln. Damit sollten Erkenntnisse für die Optimierung einer an der Ebene der Regionen ansetzenden Innovations- und Technologiepolitik gewonnen werden. Ausgew?hlte Ergebnisse werden nachfolgend zusammenfassend dargestellt...
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Innovation ; Industrielle Forschung ; Technologie ; Räumliche Verteilung ; Regionale Disparität ; Business Network ; Region ; Agglomerationseffekt ; Lernprozess ; Deutschland ; EU-Staaten
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:report
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-03-19
    Description: Ziel dieses Papiers ist die Entwicklung einer Regionstypologie zur Identifikation von strukturschwachen Regionen mit Blick auf einen innovationsbasierten regionalen Strukturwandel. Strukturschwach ist in diesem Zusammenhang nicht als negative Bewertung zu verstehen, sondern als Chancen- und Potenzialeinschätzung, auf der Basis bisheriger Strukturen und Entwicklungen sowie flankierender politischer wie privater Maßnahmen die regionale Innovationsfähigkeit und insgesamt die Positionierung der Region mit Blick auf die Gesamtheit aller Regionen zu verbessern. Der Vergleich der bisherigen Fördergebietskulisse mit einer Regionstypisierung, die innovationsbezogene Indikatoren berücksichtigt, soll einerseits den Zusammenhang zwischen Struktur- und Innovationsschwäche aufzeigen und andererseits Regionen identifizieren, die strukturschwach sind, aber abweichend davon Innovationspotenziale aufweisen. Politische Schlussfolgerung könnte es sein, in strukturschwachen Regionen die Innovationsfähigkeit zu fördern, aber auch gezielt strukturschwache Regionen mit bereits bestehenden Innovationspotenzialen zu unterstützen, um hier die Innovationsbedingungen weiter zu verbessern.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-01-14
    Description: This paper addressed the need for research regarding the role of associations in innovation systems. As defined here, the term association embraces not only organisations like business associations, but all actors who associate to pursue joint objectives and positively influence their (regional) innovation system. In the innovation system's perspective, these associations perform intermediary functions. As the relevant activities are often initiated by individuals acting in specific environments and circumstances, we need to consider not only the level of the organisation (i.e. meso level), but also the macro level of the innovation system and the micro level of individuals. Against the background of economic and social theory, intrinsic motivations have therefore also been discussed. External conditions, like the mode of governance and the logic of influence are also relevant as these define the framework conditions. Over time, associations may evolve in line with changes in the environment and internal developments. This evolution can be regarded as a life cycle which is specific to each association. Different types of associations and their specific functions have been mentioned using the example of Germany. While each of the listed associations can be regarded as an individual case, we can also assume that there are certain traits which are shared by all of them. Thus, we proposed four hypotheses addressing the macro level, i.e. the level of the regional innovation system, the meso level, i.e. the level of the association, and the micro level, which considers the motivations of individuals. We further proposed an empirical concept to be applied to study the role of associations in innovation systems.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-01-14
    Description: The paper revisits the established framework of the national and regional innovation system (NIS/RIS) in the light of recent insights from innovation research in order to increase its capacity for generating meaningful insights for policy makers and other actors wishing to influence innovation capacity of nations, regions or sectors. We review six research strands that challenge the classical NIS/RIS framework by pointing to a wider range of actors, institutions and innovation modes relevant for the innovation landscape: User innovation, social innovation, collaborative innovation, new innovation intermediaries, venture philanthropy, social and relational capital and non-R&D intensive industries. We find that each of these phenomena points to relevant contributions to national or regional innovation capacities that are not well captured by the established NIS/RIS framework. While some aspects could easily be integrated by adding some "arrows and boxes" in the graphics usually used for representing the framework, we find that several phenomena point to the need for a more fundamental revision of the innovation system framework. In particular it emerges that a distinctive assignment of actors to functions in the innovation process is no longer possible. Given, for example, the research insights on user innovation, social innovation and collaborative innovation, societal actors can no longer be assigned to the role of "demand articulation". Rather they actively contribute or sometimes even take over the generation of knowledge and innovation ideas as well as other functions such as financing, e.g. through crowdfunding activities. The broadened view on innovation also requires a wider understanding of the infrastructures and frameworks forming the enabling basis for innovation activities. Social and relational capital for instance that is deeply embedded in the cultural context of a region becomes a key enabler for trustful interactions of the diverse innovation actors such as low R&D intense firms that make huge contributions to innovation and employment but generate their knowledge through interaction with customers. The growing recognition of the economic and social relevance of collaborative and social innovation implies that collaboration platforms become as relevant infrastructures as classical technology transfer schemes. Finally the broadened view on innovation points to a wide range of intermediaries that form the backbone of an innovation system without necessarily seeing innovation as their primary purpose. As a consequence of these insights we suggest a revised innovation system framework. This system captures three types of contributions: Innovation supply and demand, innovation influx and innovation framework. Actors that may provide relevant contributions in one of these domains are grouped in open clouds, emphasizing the fluidity between functions and actors. We hope that this framework will allow for a more meaningful analysis of the innovation capacity of specific NIS/RIS systems.
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-01-14
    Keywords: ddc:330
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
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  • 10
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    Karlsruhe: Fraunhofer ISI
    Publication Date: 2019-01-14
    Description: Although other regional- and sector-oriented promotional approaches exist alongside cluster promotion, from today's perspective the popularity of the cluster approach appears undiminished. At the global scale, no funding approach is as much discussed and implemented as the cluster concept. It must therefore be assumed that cluster support will still be a central innovation policy approach in the coming years. This view is strengthened by the fact that at present no successor for cluster promotion is apparent in the recent scientific theoretical discussion. Although improvements in the con-ceptual clarity and in the cluster policy approaches are being discussed, a new paradigm at a comparable level (as for instance the concept of innovation systems or also network funding before the diffusion of the cluster approach) is not recognizable. Cluster funding will however in future have to be more specific (and selective) than previously and have to network with other funding levels and funding approaches (e.g. European excellence clusters; promotion of excellence in universities in clusters; collaborative research and network promotion; new (heterogeneous) cooperation models). All empirical evidence shows that successfully operating clusters are characterized by a great diversity of actors and activities. These qualify the cluster as a platform to develop new cooperation forms and partnerships, as well as for further education and training measures, by learning from the experiences gathered in the cluster promotion programmes and building on the interactions in clusters. In this sense, new cooperation forms at the micro level, i.e. between single partners, and at the meso level in regional partnerships are not a substitute, but rather a supplement and extension of cluster promotion.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Regionale Konzentration ; Regionalpolitik ; Wirtschaftsförderung ; Deutschland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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