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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: In the early morning of January 15, 2006, the Stardust Sample Return Capsule (SRC) successfully delivered its precious cargo of cometary particles to the awaiting recovery team at the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR). As the SRC entered at 12.8 km/s, the fastest manmade object to traverse the atmosphere, a team of researchers imaged the event aboard the NASA DC-8 airborne observatory. At SRC entry, the airplane was at an altitude of 11.9 km positioned within 6.4 km of the prescribed, preferred target view location. The incoming SRC was first acquired approximately 18 seconds (s) after atmospheric interface and tracked for approximately 60 s, an observation period that is roughly centered in time around predicted peak heating.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NASA/TM-2009-215354 , NESC-RP-06-80/05-042-I , L-19596 , LF99-8394
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: This report summarizes the research performed by North Carolina State University and NASA Ames Research Center under Cooperative Agreement NCA2-719, 'Numerical Simulation of Supersonic and Hypersonic Inlet Flow Fields". Four distinct rotated upwind schemes were developed and investigated to determine accuracy and practicality. The scheme found to have the best combination of attributes, including reduction to grid alignment with no rotation, was the cell centered non-orthogonal (CCNO) scheme. In 2D, the CCNO scheme improved rotation when flux interpolation was extended to second order. In 3D, improvements were less dramatic in all cases, with second order flux interpolation showing the least improvement over grid aligned upwinding. The reduction in improvement is attributed to uncertainty in determining optimum rotation angle and difficulty in performing accurate and efficient interpolation of the angle in 3D. The CCNO rotational technique will prove very useful for increasing accuracy when second order interpolation is not appropriate and will materially improve inlet flow solutions.
    Keywords: AERODYNAMICS
    Type: NASA-CR-199428 , NAS 1.26:199428
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Previous work on refractory diboride composites has shown that these systems have the potential for use in high temperature leading edge applications for reusable reentry vehicles. Experiments in reentry environments have shown that these materials have multiple use temperatures greater than 1900 C. The work to be discussed focuses on three compositions: HfB2/SiC, ZrB2/SiC, and ZrB2/C/SiC. These composites have been hot pressed and their mechanical properties measured at room and elevated temperatures. Extensive microstructural characterization has been conducted on polished cross sections and the fracture surfaces have been examined to determine their failure origins.
    Keywords: Composite Materials
    Type: Pacific Rim IV International Conference; 4-8 Nov. 2001; Wailea, HI; United States
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Extraterrestrial sample return is a growing component of solar system exploration. Currently, four missions, Stardust, 1 Muses-C, 2 Genesis, and Mars Sample Return, are under development that employ sample return as a prime component of the mission architecture. Respectively, these missions will return samples from the tail of a comet, an asteroid, the solar wind, and, Mars. An important component of these missions and the focus of this paper is the design of the sample return capsule (SRC). The purpose of the SRC is to safely return to Earth any gathered samples for terrestrial analysis. The two major design constraints for any SRC are as follows: 1) it must be able to survive a high-speed Earth entry (11 km/s to as a high as 15 km/s), 2) the mass of the SRC must be as small as possible. Because the SRC mass is carried from Earth to the sample sight and back, the SRC mass is a strong driver in the mission mass budget. Further, for the Mars Sample Return Capsule, planetary protection is another constraint. For this capsule, the probability of planetary contamination at Earth due to an SRC failure at entry must be minimal. For an SRC, a possible failure mechanism is severe local heating as a result of cavities and or protuberances in the SRC forebody heatshield. For example, the Apollo Command Module had a number of cavities and protuberances as part of the baseline designs Wind-tunnel tests of models containing small cavities and protuberances showed severe local heating augmentations in the vicinity of these surface discontinuities.4-5 As another example, the Genesis SRC forebody heat-shield contains penetrations (cavities) to mount the vehicle to the carrier bus. It is expected that these penetrations will also experience a severe local heating environment. A concern is that the large thermal gradients may produce sufficient thermal stress to cause local mechanical failure of the heatshield. Penetrations to the forebody heat-shield can also result from damage at vehicle integration, during launch, or during transportation of the sample return capsule from earth to the sample site and back. For example, the Starting SRC was damaged near the shoulder during the heatshield integration process producing a local surface discontinuity. Also, the Starting SRC traverses through the tail of a comet and is in space for 7 years. Thus, damage to the heatshield as a result of micrometeroid impact is a concern. Finally, it is difficult to characterize the effects of these potential heatshield singularities with ground-test facilities. Either detailed simulation or a dedicated flight test is required.
    Keywords: Astronautics (General)
    Type: 37th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit; 11-14 Jan. 1999; Reno, NV; United States
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Thermal protection materials and systems (IRS) are used to protect spacecraft during reentry into Earth's atmosphere or entry into planetary atmospheres. As such, these materials are subject to severe environments with high heat fluxes and rapid heating. Catalytic effects can increase the temperatures substantially. These materials are also subject to impact damage from micrometeorites or other debris during ascent, orbit, and descent, and thus must be able to withstand damage and to function following damage. Thermal protection materials and coatings used in reusable launch vehicles will be reviewed, including the needs and directions for new materials to enable new missions that require faster turnaround and much greater reusability. The role of ablative materials for use in high heat flux environments, especially for non-reusable applications and upcoming planetary missions, will be discussed. New thermal protection system materials may enable the use of sharp nose caps and leading edges on future reusable space transportation vehicles. Vehicles employing this new technology would have significant increases in maneuverability and out-of-orbit cross range compared to current vehicles, leading to increased mission safety in the event of the need to abort during ascent or from orbit. Ultrahigh temperature ceramics, a family of materials based on HfB2 and ZrB2 with SiC, will be discussed. The development, mechanical and thermal properties, and uses of these materials will be reviewed.
    Keywords: Composite Materials
    Type: Structural Ceramics and Ceramic Composites for High-Temperature Applications Conference; 11 Oct. 2001; Seville; Spain
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-11
    Description: Previous high level analysis has indicated that significant mass savings may be possible for planetary science missions if aerocapture is employed to place a spacecraft in orbit. In 2001 the In-Space Propulsion program identified aerocapture as one of the top three propulsion technologies for planetary exploration but that higher fidelity analysis was required to verify the favorable results and to determine if any supporting technology gaps exist that would enable or enhance aerocapture missions. A series of three studies has been conducted to assess, from an overall system point of view, the merit of using aerocapture at Titan, Neptune and Venus. These were chosen as representative of a moon with an atmosphere, an outer giant gas planet and an inner planet. The Venus mission, based on desirable science from plans for Solar System Exploration and Principal Investigator proposals, to place a spacecraft in a 300km polar orbit was examined and the details of the study are presented in this paper.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: NASA/TM-2006-214291 , L-19237
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-06-28
    Description: Boundary element algorithms for the solution of steady-state and transient heat conduction are presented. The algorithms are designed for efficient coupling with computational fluid dynamic discretizations and feature piecewise linear elements with offset nodal points. The steady-state algorithm employs the fundamental solution approach; the integration kernels are computed analytically based on linear shape functions, linear elements, and variably offset nodal points. The analytic expressions for both singular and nonsingular integrands are presented. The transient algorithm employs the transient fundamental solution; the temporal integration is performed analytically and the nonsingular spatial integration is performed numerically using Gaussian quadrature. A series solution to the integration is derived for the instance of a singular integrand. The boundary-only character of the algorithm is maintained by integrating the influence coefficients from initial time. Numerical results are compared to analytical solutions to verify the current boundary element algorithms. The steady-state and transient algorithms are numerically shown to be second-order accurate in space and time, respectively.
    Keywords: Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer
    Type: NASA-TM-110427 , NAS 1.15:110427 , A-975389
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-18
    Description: The thermal protection system of the windward surface of the X-33 vehicle consists of metallic honeycomb sandwich panels. Thermal gradients experienced during the descent phase of the trajectory result in a different rate of thermal expansion between the inner and outer face sheets of the metallic panels. This causes the panels to bow outward when the temperature of the outer face sheet is larger than that of the inner face sheet and inward when the temperature of the outer face sheet is less than that of he inner face sheet. This results in a quilted-type body surface. Using computational fluid dynamic analysis, this study will determine the effect the metallic TPS panel bowing has on the surface heating.
    Keywords: Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics
    Type: 36th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit; 12-15 Jan. 1997; Reno, NV; United States
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: In-field diffuse Ultraviolet (UV) spectroscopy and imaging systems were developed for the purposes of evaluating the surface chemical composition of spacecraft thermal control coatings and materials. The investigation of these systems and the compilation of an associated UV reflectance and luminescence database were conducted using the Stardust Sample Return Capsule (SRC), located at the Johnson Space Center. Spectral responses of the surfaces of the Stardust forebody and aftbody in both reflectance and fluorescence modes were examined post-flight. In this paper, we report on two primary findings of in-field diffuse UV spectroscopy and imaging: (1) deduction of the thermal history of thermal control coatings of the forebody and (2) bond line variations in the aftbody. In the forebody, the thermal history of thermal control coatings may be deduced from the presence of particular semiconducting defect states associated with ZnO, a common emissivity constituent in thermal control coatings. A spatial dependence of this history was mapped for these regions. In the aftbody, luminescing defect states, associated with Si and SiO2 color centers were found along regions of bond variability.
    Keywords: Inorganic, Organic and Physical Chemistry
    Type: SPIE Optics and Photonics 2008; 10-14 Aug. 2008; San Diego, CA; United States
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-27
    Description: The "Stardust" heat shield, composed of a PICA (Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator) Thermal Protection System (TPS), bonded to a composite aeroshell, contains important features which chronicle its time in space as well as re-entry. To guide the further study of the Stardust heat shield, NASA reviewed a number of techniques for inspection of the article. The goals of the inspection were: 1) to establish the material characteristics of the shield and shield components, 2) record the dimensions of shield components and assembly as compared with the pre-flight condition, 3) provide flight infonnation for validation and verification of the FIAT ablation code and PICA material property model and 4) through the evaluation of the shield material provide input to future missions which employ similar materials. Industrial X-Ray Computed Tomography (CT) is a 3D inspection technology which can provide infonnation on material integrity, material properties (density) and dimensional measurements of the heat shield components. Computed tomographic volumetric inspections can generate a dimensionally correct, quantitatively accurate volume of the shield assembly. Because of the capabilities offered by X-ray CT, NASA chose to use this method to evaluate the Stardust heat shield. Personnel at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) and Lawrence Livermore National Labs (LLNL) recently performed a full scan of the Stardust heat shield using a newly installed X-ray CT system at JSC. This paper briefly discusses the technology used and then presents the following results: 1. CT scans derived dimensions and their comparisons with as-built dimensions anchored with data obtained from samples cut from the heat shield; 2. Measured density variation, char layer thickness, recession and bond line (the adhesive layer between the PICA and the aeroshell) integrity; 3. FIAT predicted recession, density and char layer profiles as well as bondline temperatures Finally suggestions are made as to future uses of this technology as a tool for non-destructively inspecting and verifying both pre and post flight heat shields.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN1350
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