Supplement to: Knittel, Katrin; Boetius, Antje; Lemke, Andreas; Eilers, Heike; Lochte, Karin; Pfannkuche, Olaf; Linke, Peter; Amann, Rudolf (2003): Activity, distribution, and diversity of sulfate reducers and other bacteria in sediments above gas hydrate (Cascadia Margin, Oregon). Geomicrobiology Journal, 20(4), 269-294, https://doi.org/10.1080/01490450303896
Cold seep environments such as sediments above outcropping hydrate at Hydrate Ridge (Cascadia margin off Oregon) are characterized by methane venting, high sulfide fluxes caused by the anaerobic oxidation of methane, and the presence of chemosynthetic communities. This investigation deals with the diversity and distribution of sulfate-reducing bacteria, some of which are directly involved in the anaerobic oxidation of methane as syntrophic partners of the methanotrophic archaea. The composition and activity of the microbial communities at methane vented and nonvented sediments are compared by quantitative methods including total cell counts, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Bacteria involved in the degradation of particulate organic carbon (POC) are as active and diverse as at other productive margin sites of similar water depths. The availability of methane supports a two orders of magnitude higher microbial biomass (up to 9.6×10**10cells/cm**3). Sediment samples were obtained during RV SONNE cruises SO143-2 and SO148-1 at the crest of southern Hydrate Ridge at the Cascadia convergent margin off the coast of Oregon. Sediment cores of 20 - 40 cm length were obtained using a video-guided multiple corer from gas hydrate bearing sediments and from reference sites not enriched in methane in the surface sediments. Samples for total cell counts were obtained from 1 cm core slices, fixed with 2% formaldehyde and stored cold (4°C) and the quantification of aggregates was done via epifluorescence microscopy after staining the sediments with Acridine Orange Direct Counts (AODC) according to the method of Meyer- Reil (1983, doi:10.1007/BF00395813). Total cell counts were defined as the sum of single cells plus the aggregated cells in the syntrophic consortia. DAPI staining was used to measure ANME2/DSS aggregate sizes via epifluorescence microscopy of FISH-treated samples. For FISH, subsamples of sediment cores were sliced into 1 cm intervals and fixed for 2-3 h with 3% formaldehyde (final concentration), washed twice with 1×PBS (10 mM sodium phosphate; 130 mM NaCl), and finally stored in 1×PBS/EtOH (1:1) at -20°C.
text/tab-separated-values, 665 data points