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  • 1
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Cham : Springer International Publishing
    Description / Table of Contents: This book aims to identify, present and discuss key driving forces and pressures on ecosystem services. Ecosystem services are the contributions that ecosystems provide to human well-being. The scope of this atlas is on identifying solutions and lessons to be applied across science, policy and practice. The atlas will address different components of ecosystem services, assess risks and vulnerabilities, and outline governance and management opportunities. The atlas will therefore attract a wide audience, both from policy and practice and from different scientific disciplines. The emphasis will be on ecosystems in Europe, as the available data on service provision is best developed for this region and recognizes the strengths of the contributing authors. Ecosystems of regions outside Europe will be covered where possible.
    Description / Table of Contents: Human well-being is significantly affected by the contributions provided by ecosystems, or ecosystem services. In this well-illustrated atlas, world-class experts identify and discuss key driving forces, trade-offs, and synergies of ecosystem services. Through interdisciplinary case studies varying across ecosystems and scales, this atlas narrows the knowledge gap between ecosystem services management and related fields of study. This atlas begins with conceptual background and proceeds to present drivers and their risks for ecosystems, their functions and services, and biodiversity. Trade-offs and synergies among ecosystem services and societal responses to the drivers and trade-offs are discussed. Sustainable land management and governance concepts are demonstrated throughout the atlas. Environmental scientists, practitioners and policy makers worldwide will appreciate the solutions and best practices identified throughout the chapters. Students of environmental sciences, socio-economics and landscape planning will find this atlas to be a valuable read, as well
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    ISBN: 9783319962283 , 9783319962290
    Language: English
    Note: Contents: The Risk to Ecosystems and Ecosystem Services: A Framework for the Atlas of Ecosystem Services ; The Ecosystem Service Concept: Linking Ecosystems and Human Wellbeing ; The Link Between Diversity, Ecosystem Functions, and Ecosystem Services ; Embracing Community Resilience in Ecosystem Management and Research ; Risk and Uncertainty as Sources of Economic Value of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services ; Taking Social Responsibility in Using Ecosystem Services Concepts: Ethical Issues of Linking Ecosystems and Human Well-Being ; Introduction to Part II: Drivers and Their Risks for Ecosystems, Their Functions, and Services ; Scaling Sensitivity of Drivers ; The Evidence for Genetic Diversity Effects on Ecosystem Services ; Using Dynamic Global Vegetation Models (DGVMs) for Projecting Ecosystem Services at Regional Scales ; Remote Sensing Measurements of Forest Structure Types for Ecosystem Service Mapping ; Mapping Land System Archetypes to Understand Drivers of Ecosystem Service Risks ; Assessment of Soil Functions Affected by Soil Management ; Mediterranean Wetlands: A Gradient from Natural Resilience to a Fragile Social-Ecosystem ; Vulnerability of Ecosystem Services in Farmland Depends on Landscape Management ; Provisioning Ecosystem Services at Risk: Pollination Benefits and Pollination Dependency of Cropping Systems at the Global Scale ; Minimising Risks of Global Change by Enhancing Resilience of Pollinators in Agricultural Systems ; Drivers of Risks for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services: Biogas Plants Development in Germany ; European Energy Governance Landscapes: Energy-Related Pressures on Ecosystem Services ; Wind Power Deployment as a Stressor for Ecosystem Services: A Comparative Case Study from Germany and Sweden ; Selected Trade-Offs and Risks Associated with Land Use Transitions in Central Germany ; New EU-Level Scenarios on the Future of Ecosystem Services ; The Rural-to-Urban Gradient and Ecosystem Services ; How to Reconcile the Ecosystem Service of Regulating the Microclimate with Urban Planning Projects on Brownfields? The Case Study Bayerischer Bahnhof in Leipzig, Germany ; Urban Green Infrastructure in Support of Ecosystem Services in a Highly Dynamic South American City: A Multi-Scale Assessment of Santiago de Chile ; Climate Regulation by Diverse Urban Green Spaces: Risks and Opportunities Related to Climate and Land Use Change ; Climate Change as Driver for Ecosystem Services Risk and Opportunities ; Capacity of Ecosystems to Degrade Anthropogenic Chemicals ; Impacts of Nitrogen Deposition on Forest Ecosystem Services and Biodiversity ; Ecosystem Services from Inland Waters and Their Aquatic Ecosystems ; Groundwater Ecosystems and Their Services: Current Status and Potential Risks ; Drinking Water Quality at Risk: A European Perspective ; Pesticide Effects on Stream Ecosystems ; How Good Are Bad Species? ; Alien Planktonic Species in the Marine Realm: What Do They Mean for Ecosystem Services Provision? ; Invasion of the Wadden Sea by the Pacific Oyster (Magallana gigas): A Risk to Ecosystem Services? ; International Trade and Global Flows of Ecosystem Services ; Introduction to Part III: Trade-Offs and Synergies Among Ecosystem Services ; Trade-Offs and Synergies Between Biodiversity Conservation and Productivity in the Context of Increasing Demands on Landscapes ; Climate Change Induced Carbon Competition: Bioenergy Versus Soil Organic Matter Reproduction ; Removal of Agricultural Residues from Conventional Cropping Systems ; Shrinking Cities and Ecosystem Services: Opportunities, Planning, Challenges, and Risks ; Spatial Patterns of Ecosystem Service Bundles in Germany ; Indicators of Ecosystem Services for Policy Makers in the Netherlands ; The Montérégie Connection: Understanding How Ecosystems Can Provide Resilience to the Risk of Ecosystem Service Change ; Synchronized Peak Rate Years of Global Resources Use Imply Critical Trade-Offs in Appropriation of Natural Resources and Ecosystem Services
    Branch Library: PIK Library
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2006-11-01
    Description: We present a detailed palaeoclimate analysis of the Middle Miocene (uppermost Badenian–lowermost Sarmatian) Schrotzburg locality in S Germany, based on the fossil macro- and micro-flora, using four different methods for the estimation of palaeoclimate parameters: the coexistence approach (CA), leaf margin analysis (LMA), the Climate-Leaf Analysis Multivariate Program (CLAMP), as well as a recently developed multivariate leaf physiognomic approach based on an European calibration dataset (ELPA). Considering results of all methods used, the following palaeoclimate estimates seem to be most likely: mean annual temperature ∼15–16°C (MAT), coldest month mean temperature ∼7°C (CMMT), warmest month mean temperature between 25 and 26°C, and mean annual precipiation ∼1,300 mm, although CMMT values may have been colder as indicated by the disappearance of the crocodile Diplocynodon and the temperature thresholds derived from modern alligators. For most palaeoclimatic parameters, estimates derived by CLAMP significantly differ from those derived by most other methods. With respect to the consistency of the results obtained by CA, LMA and ELPA, it is suggested that for the Schrotzburg locality CLAMP is probably less reliable than most other methods. A possible explanation may be attributed to the correlation between leaf physiognomy and climate as represented by the CLAMP calibration data set which is largely based on extant floras from N America and E Asia and which may be not suitable for application to the European Neogene. All physiognomic methods used here were affected by taphonomic biasses. Especially the number of taxa had a great influence on the reliability of the palaeoclimate estimates. Both multivariate leaf physiognomic approaches are less influenced by such biasses than the univariate LMA. In combination with previously published results from the European and Asian Neogene, our data suggest that during the Neogene in Eurasia CLAMP may produce temperature estimates, which are systematically too cold as compared to other evidence. This pattern, however, has to be further investigated using additional palaeofloras. ©2006 Springer-Verlag
    Print ISSN: 1437-3254
    Electronic ISSN: 1437-3262
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-01-30
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1572-9710
    Keywords: ornithochory ; fleshy fruit ; succession ; species losses ; cultural biotope.
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Abandonment of traditional agricultural practices in fruit orchards on hillsides in Central Germany results in successive changes in vegetation. We examined three hypotheses relating to these changes: (1) thickets of fleshy-fruited plants develop around planted trees as a result of ornithochory and local soil and site amelioration, (2) woody plants have long-term effects on soil fertility, and (3) thicket development reduces the plant-species diversity of semi-dry grassland between the trees. Field observations and nursery experiments supported the first and second hypotheses. Increased soil fertility, a seed rain of fleshy-fruited shrubs, and shrub establishment occurred mainly around planted fruit trees. Soils from old tree-planting sites remained fertile after the trees had died and disappeared. The third hypothesis was rejected because no decrease in species' richness or diversity occurred during the initial stages of thicket formation. Nevertheless, herbaceous plant species characteristic of the Festuco-Brometea community were absent from the vegetation and seed bank of shaded, nutrient-enriched sites. Conservation of semi-dry grasslands following orchard abandonment will therefore require active control of woody plants.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2016-11-05
    Description: Cross-system studies on the response of different ecosystems to global change will support our understanding of ecological changes. Synoptic views on the planet's two main realms, the marine and terrestrial, however, are rare, owing to the development of rather disparate research communities.We combined questionnaires and a literature review to investigate howthe importance of anthropogenic drivers of biodiversity change differs amongmarine and terrestrial systems and whether differences perceived by marine vs. terrestrial researchers are reflected by the scientific literature. This included asking marine and terrestrial researchers to rate the relevance of different drivers of global change for either marine or terrestrial biodiversity. Land use and the associated loss of natural habitatswere rated as most important in the terrestrial realm,while the exploitation of the sea by fishing was rated as most important in the marine realm. The relevance of chemicals, climate change and the increasing atmospheric concentration of CO2 were rated differently for marine and terrestrial biodiversity respectively. Yet, our literature review provided less evidence for such differences leading to the conclusion that while the history of the use of land and sea differs, impacts of global change are likely to become increasingly similar.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 6
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    Konstanz: Sonderforschungsbereich 178 "Internationalisierung der Wirtschaft", Universität Konstanz
    Publication Date: 2016-12-12
    Description: Querschnittsdaten aus benachbarten Raumgebieten, wie in der Regionalökonomie verwendet, weisen neben Heteroskedastie oft auch gegenseitige Abhängigkeiten auf. Die wechselseitige Beeinflussung wird in der raumstrukturellen Ökonometrie (Spatial Econometrics) meist explizit durch Autokorrelation entweder im Fehlerterm oder in der endogenen Variablen modelliert. Für die Schätzung entsprechender Prozesse ist KQ nicht anwendbar, während Maximum Likelihood-Schätzer rechentechnische Probleme verursachen, so daß GMM-Verfahren vorzuziehen sind. Vorliegender Beitrag gibt einen Überblick über gängige Test- und Schätzverfahren und verdeutlicht deren Eigenschaften in endlichen Stichproben mit Hilfe von Monte Carlo-Studien.
    Description: Cross section data originating from neighboring spatial units - frequently used in Regional Sciences - is not only affected by heteroscedasticity but often also mutually dependent. In Spatial Econometrics, this is often taken into account by explicitly modelling autocorrelated error terms or dependent variables. OLS is not suitable for the estimation of such processes whereas ML may cause computional bürden so the GMM methodology is favorable. This paper gives a survey of several tests and estimation procedures used for spatial data and examines their small sample properties presenting some Monte Carlo studies.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Raumwirtschaftstheorie ; Ökonometrisches Makromodell ; Theorie
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: German
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 7
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    Konstanz: University of Konstanz, Center of Finance and Econometrics (CoFE)
    Publication Date: 2018-02-08
    Description: When making decisions, agents tend to make use of decisions others have made in similar situations. Ignoring this behavior in empirical models can be interpreted as a problem of omitted variables and may seriously bias parameter estimates and harm inference. We suggest a possibility of integrating such outside in uences into models of discrete choice decisions by defining an abstract space in which agents with similar characteristics are neighbors who possibly in uence each other. In order to correct for correlations between the characteristics, the design of this space allows for nonorthogonality of its dimensions. Several Monte Carlo simulations show the small sample properties of spatial models with binary choice. When applying the estimator to innovation decisions data of German firms, we find evidence for the existence of neighborhood effects.
    Keywords: ddc:330 ; Innovation ; Entscheidungstheorie ; Mikroökonometrie ; Nutzen ; Theorie ; Schätzung ; Deutschland ; Querschnittsanalyse
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 8
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    Mannheim: Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung (ZEW) | ZBW – Leibniz Information Centre for Economics Kiel, Hamburg
    Publication Date: 2018-09-04
    Description: The German apprenticeship training system is generally acknowledged to solve the youth unemployment problem prevalent in many European countries by providing on-the-job training that often leads into subsequent regular employment within the training firms. Little attention has been paid to those youths who either fail their apprenticeship training or do not find a job afterwards. Both events may not only be associated with a depreciation of human capital but also may serve as a screening device for potential employers. In this paper we try to analyze empirically if a failed labor market entrance reduces subsequent earnings and if a potential reduction lasts over the individual's labor market history. We construct a pseudo panel of birth cohorts for a sample of West German males born between 1930 and 1965 from three repeated cross sections observed in 1979, 1985/86, and 1991/92. Analyzing the pseudo panel data we find a strong negative impact on earnings for both a failed apprenticeship training and a failed transition into regular employment. While the latter effect lasts over the individual's labor market history the former effect is compensated with increasing labor market experience.
    Keywords: J24 ; J31 ; C23 ; ddc:330 ; Apprenticeship Training ; Labor Market Entrance ; Earnings ; Cohorts ; Pseudo Panel Estimation
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2018-11-23
    Description: Das vorliegende Grünbuch für eine Citizen Science Strategie 2020 stellt die Ziele, Potenziale und Herausforderungen von Citizen Science in Deutschland dar und zeigt Handlungsoptionen für die Entwicklung einer nationalen Strategie zur Einbindung von Bürgerinnen und Bürgern in die Wissenschaft auf. Dabei wird der Fokus auf drei Handlungsfelder gelegt: Die Stärkung etablierter Strukturen, die Neuschaffung von Rahmenbedingungen und die weitere Integration von Cititzen Science in bestehende Konzepte durch verschiedene Maßnahmen. Außerdem werden im Grünbuch vor allem auch die Ziele und Möglichkeiten ebenso wie eine Vision für die Rolle von Citizen Science im Jahr 2020, unter anderem in Form von zehn Leitbildern, definiert. Im Vordergrund stehen auch hier die breite Etablierung, Anerkennung und Einbeziehung von Citizen Science in gesellschaftsrelevante Kontexte.
    Keywords: ddc:300
    Repository Name: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, Energie
    Language: German
    Type: report , doc-type:report
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2012-08-15
    Description: Reverse engineering a hierarchical regulatory network downstream of oncogenic KRAS Molecular Systems Biology 8, (2012). doi:10.1038/msb.2012.32 Authors: Iwona Stelniec-Klotz, Stefan Legewie, Oleg Tchernitsa, Franziska Witzel, Bertram Klinger, Christine Sers, Hanspeter Herzel, Nils Blüthgen & Reinhold Schäfer
    Electronic ISSN: 1744-4292
    Topics: Biology
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