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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bradford : Emerald
    Disaster prevention and management 5 (1996), S. 36-41 
    ISSN: 0965-3562
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Technology
    Notes: Describes some changes made to improve the environment which have had unforeseen and adverse effects on safety and the reasons why we need more case histories. Also discusses the reasons why there are no permanent solutions to safety problems and the reasons why senior managers should become more involved in safety problems.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bradford : Emerald
    Disaster prevention and management 5 (1996), S. 41-46 
    ISSN: 0965-3562
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Technology
    Notes: Technologists and the public look at risks in different ways: technologists try to find a way of estimating the size of each risk and then try to deal with the bigger ones first; their decisions may not be right but the reasons for them are usually made clear. In contrast, the reasons for the public's decisions are usually implicit, that is, they have to be deduced from their actions, but nevertheless they show a pattern. Tries to give each side a better understanding of the other's point of view.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Bradford : Emerald
    Disaster prevention and management 3 (1994), S. 33-36 
    ISSN: 0965-3562
    Source: Emerald Fulltext Archive Database 1994-2005
    Topics: Technology
    Notes: Have disasters become more frequent and more severe? We often assumethat they have but a review of the evidence does not support this view,so far as the oil and chemical industries are concerned. In the 1970sthe size of the chemical industry doubled but the number and frequencyof accidents killing five or more people remained constant. However, inthe 1980s, although the frequency remained the same there were moremajor incidents and more people died. Two forgotten, nineteenth centurydisasters, which resulted, like Hillsborough (1989), from the failure ofcrowd control, are described.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 14 (1995), S. 271-275 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: We learn more from accounts of accidents than from codes and standards or exhortations to follow them. Incident reports are more likely to spur us into action. We are unlikely to read a code until an accident report has shown us the need. This paper describes a number of accidents, some old, some recent, which can teach us lessons of general interest. It looks at the underlying causes as well as the immediate technical ones.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 20-22 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Most audits try to look at a representative selection of the plant procedures and equipment. An alternative is a survey, a look in depth at selected procedures (such as those for testing alarms and trips, issuing permits-to-work, controlling modifications, taking samples or testing relief devices) or selected equipment (such as level glasses or equipment for handling LPG). If the procedure or equipment is well-chosen, surveys may make a bigger contribution to safety, per person-hour, than a conventional audit.
    Additional Material: 1 Tab.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 12 (1993), S. 147-150 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Changes made to improve the environment have sometimes produced unforeseen and hazardous side-effects. Thus enclosing compressor houses to reduce noise has made explosion more likely, the replacement of CFCs in aerosols has led to a number of fires in plants and warehouses and the confinement of flammable vapors in vent collection systems has caused a number of explosions. These and some other similar changes are described. Before changing designs or methods of operation we should try to foresee their effects and we should balance the risks to people against the risks to environment.
    Additional Material: 1 Tab.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 15 (1996), S. 5-8 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Inherently safer design, that is, avoiding hazards rather than controlling them, has advocated since the explosion at Flixborough in 1974. Progress has been real but nevertheless the concept has not been adopted nearly as rapidly as quantitative risk assessment, introduced into the chemical industry only a few years earlier. The present position is reviewed and the constraints that have to be overcome are outlined.A man takes a mustard seed and sows it in his field. It is the smallest of all seeds, but when it grows up, it is the biggest of all plants. It becomes a tree… - Matthew 13:31-32It takes longer to familiarize oneself with a region of the mind than with a country… - Graham Greene (Introduction to Brighton Rock)
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY [u.a.] : Wiley-Blackwell
    Process Safety Progress 17 (1998), S. 196-199 
    ISSN: 1066-8527
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: From the 1960s onwards, the chemical and oil industries developed and used a number of new safety techniques which, in time, became second nature to those who applied them. They included the use of QRA for deciding priorities, Hazop and audits for identifying problems, inherently safer design for avoiding hazards, and more thorough investigation of incidents for identifying underlying causes. However, it has not yet become second nature to remember the accidents of the past and the actions needed to prevent them happening again.I joined industry in 1944 and moved to production in 1952. Then, and for at least 15 years afterwards, safety was a non-technical subject that could be left to arts graduates and elderly foremen. There was concern that people should not be hurt - great attention was paid to the lost-time accident rate - but there was no realization, that it was a subject worthy of systematic study by experienced technologists.This view changed at the end of the 1960s. A new generation of plants had been built, operating at higher temperatures and pressures and containing larger inventories of hazardous chemicals; the result was a series of fires and explosions and a worsening fatal accident rate. Figure 1 shows the situation in ICI, at the time the UK, s largest chemical company. Other companies experienced a similar state of affairs.As a result in 1968, I was appointed one of the company's first technical safety advisers, an unusual appointment at the time for someone with my experience, and if the reason for my appointment had not been so obvious I would have wondered what I had done wrong. I and my colleagues tried to apply the same sort of systematic thinking to safety that we applied in our other professional work. We developed some new concepts and techniques and adopted others. A common feature of our ides, realized only in restrospect, was that they consisted of more than mere problem-solving techniques. Once people had got used to these new concepts and used them a few times, they began to look at a whole range of problems in a different way.
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Plant/Operations Progress 10 (1991), S. 81-84 
    ISSN: 0278-4513
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: Instead of adding on protective equipment to control hazards, in an inherently safer plant we avoid them by using less of the hazardous material. Another option is to implement safer alternatives. Though the chemical industry has been slow to adopt such designs there has been some progress.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    New York, NY : Wiley-Blackwell
    Plant/Operations Progress 3 (1984), S. 1-3 
    ISSN: 0278-4513
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Chemical Engineering
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Additional Material: 1 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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