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  • 1
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: energy metabolism ; glycolysis ; differentiation stage ; alkaline phosphatase ; mineralization ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Bone marrow stromal cells give rise to osteoprogenitor cell (OPC) colonies, with characteristic mineralized bone nodules in vitro. During differentiation, OPCs in the culture are surrounded by heterogeneous populations of various cell lineages and by different OPC differentiation stages. In the present study, attempts were made to increase the homogeneity of OPCs in culture. The reliance on energy metabolism restricted to glycolysis, which is specific to the premineralizing skeletal cells, was tested as a selectable marker for cells in this stage. Day 12 alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and day 20-21 calcium precipitates were used as early and late OPC differentiation markers. Malonate, a competitive inhibitor of succinate dehydrogenase, was added to the OPC stimulation medium, to interfere with the Krebs cycle-dependent energy metabolism operating in most of the stromal cells. OPCs that entered the stage of energy metabolism restricted to glycolysis were expected to become malonate resistant. Malonate showed dose and time dependence, 10 mM malonate added on day 3, decreased day 12 ALP activity/well to the lowest level. Variations in time and length of exposure to malonate used during the first 12 days of differentiation showed an inverse correlation between specific ALP activity and cell yield. Malonate-treated variations of specific ALP and of cell yield indices were up to 30- to 40-fold larger than variations within day 21 calcium precipitates. Thus, calcifying cells were almost unchanged relatively to noncalcifying cells. These results indicate that malonate-resistant cells are mostly selected, rather than induced, to differentiate by malonate. The results also show that stromal derived OPCs undergo a similar biochemical stage as in chondrocytes. © 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: thermogenesis ; osteoprogenitor cells ; valinomycin ; mitochondria ; inner membrane ; rhodamine 123 ; uncoupling ; oxidative phosphorylation ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: In both the growth plate and in marrow stromal cell cultures cell-mediated mineralization is preceded by characteristics of anaerobic and low efficiency energy metabolism. Reagents that increase mineralization like malonate and dexamethasone (DEX) also increase the mitochondrial membrane potential (MtMP) especially 1 week after DEX stimulation. Contrarily, levamisole, which decreases mineralization, also decreases MtMP. Modulation of MtMP and energy metabolism could be linked to regulation of mineralization by the uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation. This uncoupling should be associated with thermogenesis in cells that induce mineralization. We examined whether cold temperature affects mineralization, and whether cellular thermogenesis takes place at cold temperature in parallel to changes in MtMP. Osteoprogenitor cells (OPC) induced, in DEX stimulated rat marrow stroma, higher mineralization at 33°C than at 37°C. Increased mineralization by cold temperature required long incubation since incubation in the cold during short intervals, 3-4 days, did not increase mineralization relative to (37°C) controls. Marrow stromal cells in the presence of valinomycin responded to incubation at 33°C by retaining all the vital dye after 4 h, unlike the cells at 37°C; however, after 24 h the level of dye retention at 33°C was the same as at 37°C. The delayed response of the temperature-dependent (〉 37°C) K+ ionophor to incubation in the cold indicated that certain cells may respond to low temperature by local intracellular heating, and by heat conduction to the plasma membrane. DEX-stimulated stromal cells, unlike unstimulated cells, showed increased mitochondrial rhodamine 123 retention in the presence of valinomycin after 24 h in the cold, which corresponds to day 4 of OPC induction. This is consistent with the concept that valinomycin-induced cell damage is mediated by (cold-induced) local heating. The mechanism of this cell damage should selectively prefer non-thermogenic (rhodamine retaining) over thermogenic (rhodamine leaking) cells such as OPC. At cold temperature DEX-stimulated stromal cells showed the best anti-OPC selection under exposure to valinomycine between days 3-7, concurrent with the period of rhodamine leakage from the mitochondria. These results indicate that thermogenesis is enhanced during the period of low MtMP in mineralizing cells, and prolonged exposure to cold increases mineralization also due to induction of subtle thermogenesis. © 1996 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: alkaline phosphatase ; osteogenic induction ; pp60Src ; tyrosine phosphorylation ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Cyclosporin A (CsA) induces osteoporosis but not through direct activation of osteoclasts. CsA also inhibits cell-mediated mineralization in marrow stromal cell culture, whereas the tyrphostin AG-1478 increases mineralization. These antagonistic effects on mineralization were used to discern molecules that underwent phosphorylation changes in association with their opposing effects on mineralization. In parallel, quantitative changes in Src protein were followed. Multiple dexamethasone (DEX)-stimulated stromal cell cultures were grown with and without a mineralization-inhibiting dose (0.1 μM) of CsA and were harvested on different days of DEX stimulation. Immunoblots of gel-fractionated cell extracts showed that the most noticeable changes in tyrosine phosphorylated proteins (TPP) were seen on day 8 of DEX stimulation. At least 15 TPP bands, mostly smaller than 53 kDa, were more prominent in CsA-treated cultures on day 8. Under CsA, Src protein quantity decreased on day 8, but its cleavage product (52/54 kDa) was sixfold more abundant then on day 7. Day 8 was chosen to test the effect of AG-1478 on the CsA-induced TPP changes. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) alone, the solvent of AG-1478, increased mineralization in CsA-treated versus CsA-untreated cultures and slightly decreased Src and its cleavage product. AG-1478 at 5 μM, in CsA cultures increased the specific alkaline phosphatase activity threefold, with a slight change in mineralization relative to controls grown with DMSO alone. This was accompanied by decreased intensity of several TPP bands smaller than 36 kDa. In contrast, treatment with 50 μM of AG-1478 increased the intensity of TPP bands at the same molecular size range. This high AG-1478 dose decreased cell counts selecting mineralizing cells. The results indicate that increased Src protein cleavage product on day 8 by CsA is associated with mineralization inhibition, which is opposed by DMSO and 50-μM AG-1478, thus antagonizing the effect of CsA on mineralization. Direct or indirect interaction between Src and TPP, antagonistically affected by CsA and AG-1478, is likely to underlay cellular control of mineralization. Changes in p19 and p29 intensity showed association with mineralization that was reflected by a significant direct and inverse correlation, respectively, with calcium precipitation per cell. J. Cell. Biochem. 71:116-126, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: osteoprogenitor cells ; differentiation ; alkaline phosphatase ; calcium ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: The ability of Levamisole to decrease mineralization in skeletal tissue is usually related to its effect on alkaline phosphatase (ALP). However, Levamisole is also suspected to diminish mineralization by an additional mechanism which is unrelated to the ALP control of apatite crystal growth. To delineate the time in differentiation during which Levamisole inhibits mineralization, a tissue culture model system of bone marrow stromal cells was used. Secondary cultures of stromal cells were propagated in osteoprogenitor cell (OPC) induction medium for three weeks, followed by measurement of calcium precipitation. In situ ALP assays at pH 7.6 were also performed. When cells were cultured with 0.2 mM Levamisole for three weeks, Day 20 values of calcium precipitates were lower than in controls, but Day 20 ALP values were paradoxically higher. The correlation between calcium and ALP within each group was low. The correlation slightly improved, in uninhibited cultures, when Day 21 calcium values were matched with earlier Day 12 ALP values. This suggested the existence of a Levamisole-sensitive mechanism for mineralization inhibition effective prior to the culture's mineralization stage. To focus on this early effect on mineralization Levamisole was added to stromal cultures on different days and removed on Day 12. Levamisole decreased Day 21 mineralization when added on Days 0, 3, 5, and 7, but not when added on Day 9. The Levamisole-induced inhibition of mineralization was accompanied by an increase in Day 12 ALP specific activity, compared to controls, when added from Day 5 and thereafter. The results indicate that part of the ability of stromal cells to mineralize is determined during the first week of culture. The early inhibitory effect of Levamisole on mineralization was associated with increased Day 12 ALP activity.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: energy metabolism ; mineralization ; OPC-stimulation ; dexamethasone ; mitochondrial membrane ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Bone marrow stromal cells contain colony forming cells with the potential to differentiate into osteoprogenitor (OPC) cells. OPC-stimulation medium, containing dexamethasone, ascorbate, and β-glycerophosphate is widely used to recruit OPCs in culture. Cultures were incubated 24 h with rhodamine 123 (Rho), on different days, to examine the effect of the OPC-stimulation medium on the mitochondrial membrane potential of stromal cells. Cultures grown in both ordinary medium (DMEM with 15% FCS) and OPC-stimulation medium showed 2 Rho retention peaks on days 3-4 and 10-11. Between days 5 and 10 there was a drop in Rho retention/cell. OPC-stimulation medium increased Rho retention by at least twice the amount relative to ordinary medium, and has quadrupled it on day 7. Incubation with Rho concentrations above 5.0 μg/ml inhibited the portion of increased Rho retention which was contributed by the OPC-stimulation medium. Prolonged exposure to 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 μg/ml Rho for 12 days only slightly increased day 12 ALP activity/cell, had no effect on day-21 mineralization and only the high dose, 10.0 μg/ml, doubled stromal cell proliferation. Under 24 h incubation Rho concentrations of 1.0 μg/ml and below can serve as a marker for mitochondrial membrane potential in differentiating stromal cells. The results indicate that under both culture conditions stromal cell mitochondria undergo cycles of high and low membrane potential states and that the OPC-stimulation medium constantly maintains an elevated membrane potential relative to ordinary medium.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: osteoprogenitors ; mineralization ; marrow stroma ; Src ; tyrosine kinase dexamethasone ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Src protein is essential for the regulation of bone turnover primarily via bone resorption because it is required in osteoclast differentiation and function. We followed temporal changes of Src protein abundance in marrow stromal cells induced to mineralize by dexamethasone (DEX), growth in cold temperature, or both. Given the tyrosine kinase function of Src and its numerous substrates, profiles of phosphotyrosine-containing proteins were followed as well. On day 11 of stimulation, specific alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity at 30°C decreased under DEX relative to 37°C cultures, in accord with increased cell counts. Mineralization per well under DEX increased by 25% at 37°C, whereas at 30°C it increased by more than threefold regardless of the DEX stimulation. At 30°C, on a per cell basis mineralization increased 2.5 and 3 times with and without DEX, respectively. Cultures at 37°C showed a general drop per cell of many phosphotyrosine-containing proteins on day 3 relative to days 1 and 2 in both DEX-stimulated and nonstimulated cultures; several proteins did recover (recuperate) thereafter. On days 1 and 2, the phosphotyrosine signal was higher in several proteins under DEX stimulation; this trend became inverted after day 3. The changes in abundance per cell of Src protein (pp60src) followed a similar trend, and in addition a truncated Src molecule, p54/52src, was detected as a putative cleavage product presumably representing its carboxy terminus. The pp60src was most abundant, relative to its truncated product, in day 7 nonstimulated cultures, whereas under DEX stimulation the truncated species pp54/52src showed the highest relative abundance on days 7. At 30°C, DEX stimulation accentuated the increase in Src protein on day 3, showed no change on day 7, and returned to increase Src protein on day 10. Potassium ionophorvalinomycin, considered to select against mineralizing osteoprogenitors at 30°C, showed on day 10 in the absence of DEX a relative increase in truncated Src protein compared to both DEX-stimulated and nonstimulated cultures in the absence of valinomycin. On day 7 of DEX stimulation, the presence of valinomycin resulted in low p54/52src. Among phosphotyrosine-containing proteins, a 32-34 kDa band, as yet unidentified, showed the most concordant changes with mineralization induction. P32-34 decreased by DEX on days 2 and 8 and increased by low temperature alone or combined with DEX on day 3. On day 7, p32-34 did not change under DEX, but valinomycin selected cells with less phoshpotyrosine-containing p32-34. Taken together, high Src abundance at the start of osteogenic induction followed by a decrease 1 week later is probably related to energy metabolism-dependent induction of mineralization. This is in temporal accord with the increase in Src truncation and fluctuation in mitochondrial membrane potential (which affects mineralization). The reported binding of amino-terminal Src oligopeptide to p32 ADP/ATP carrier in the mitochondrial inner membrane raises the question of its possible involvement in mitochondria-regulated mineralization. J. Cell. Biochem. 69:316-325, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: cis-hydroxyproline ; rhodamine 123 ; mitochondria ; rat bone marrow ; dexamethasone ; osteoprogenitor cells ; differentiation ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Mitochondrial response to the effect of a hydroxylase (PH) inhibitor was tested in marrow stromal cells during stimulation of osteoprogenitor cell (OPC) differentiation. The rationale for this was to explore pathways of regulatory interactions between procollagen synthesis and mitochondrial respiration that could be linked to the commitment of OPCs to mineralization. Stimulated OPCs exposed to the PH inhibitor cis-hydroxyproline (cis-HP), compared to the noninhibiting isomer trans-HP, for 11 days showed a dose-dependent decrease in cell proliferation, the surviving cells showed increased alkaline phosphatase activity. Trans-HP did not influence the cis-HP effect on ALP and on proliferation arrest. Short time exposures, 2-3 days, to cis-HP at different periods suggested that Days 0-3 and 3-5 were critical for the commitment to Day 21 mineralization of OPCs. On Days 0-3 cells were most sensitive to cis-HP, since on Day 11, 8 days after removal of cis-HP, they were too scarce to be counted by the staining method. However, the presence of 5.0 mM cis-HP in the cultures during Days 3-5 has induced on Day 21 close to 24-fold more mineralization/cell than controls, compared to the trans-HP effect, which was only close to 3-fold. The presence of cis-HP in the cultures on Days 0-3 has augmented the mitochondrial Day 3 retention of rhodamine 123 (Rho) in the stromal cells, relative to controls, compared to the presence of trans-HP. However, the presence of cis-HP during Days 3-5 or 3-6 resulted in lower Day 5 Rho retention, relative to controls, which was not significantly different from the retention that resulted from trans-HP. Since Rho retention is related to the final result of aerobic respiration level, these results are interpreted as a cis-HP inhibitory effect on procollagen peptidyl-proline hydroxylation, which may in turn release oxygen surpluses, to be available for mitochondrial consumption. The fall in Rho retention responses to cis-HP between Days 0-3 and 3-5 is suggesting either abrupt decrease in proline hydroxylation or poor mitochondrial sensitivity to oxygen in Day 3-5 cultures.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0730-2312
    Keywords: osteoprogenitors ; marrow-stroma ; alkaline phosphatase ; bisphosphonates ; cell proliferation ; mineralization ; Life and Medical Sciences ; Cell & Developmental Biology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Bisphosphonates (BPs) are inhibitors of bone resorption and soft tissue calcification. The biological effects of the BPs in calcium-related disorders are attributed mainly to their incorporation in bone, enabling direct interaction with osteoclasts and/or osteoblasts through a variety of biochemical pathways. Structural differences account for the considerable differences in the pharmacological activity of BPs. We compared the effects of two structurally different compounds, alendronate and 2-(3′-dimethylaminopyrazinio)ethylidene-1,1-bisphosphonic acid betaine (VS-6), in an osteoprogenitor differentiation system. The BPs were examined in a bone marrow stromal-cell culture system, which normally results in osteoprogenitor differentiation. The drugs were present in the cultures from days 2 to 11 of osteogenic stimulation, a period estimated as being comparable to the end of proliferation and the matrix-maturation stages. We found that the two different BPs have opposing effects on specific alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, on stromal-cell proliferation, and on cell-mediated mineralization. These BPs differentially interact with cell-associated phosphohydrolysis, particularly at a concentration of 10-2 of ALP Km, in which alendronate inhibits whereas VS-6 did not inhibit phosphatase activity. VS-6 treatment resulted in similar and significantly increased mineralization at 10 and 1 μM drug concentrations, respectively. In contrast, mineralization was similar to control, and significantly decreased at 10 and 1 μM drug concentrations, respectively, under alendronate treatment. J. Cell. Biochem. 68:186-194, 1998. © 1998 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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